What was the Battle of Ayn al-Warda (685)?

Introduction The Battle of Ayn al-Warda (Arabic: مَعْرَكَة‌ عَيْن ٱلْوَرْدَة‎), part of the Second Fitna, was fought in early January 685 between the Umayyad army and the Penitents (Tawwabun). The Penitents were a group of pro-Alid Kufans led by Sulayman ibn Surad, a companion of Muhammad, who wished to atone for their failure to assist… Read More


What was the Second Fitna (680-692)?

Introduction The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder and conflicts in the Islamic community during the early Umayyad caliphate. It followed the death of the first Umayyad caliph Mu’awiya I in 680 and lasted for about twelve years. The war involved the suppression of two challenges to the Umayyad dynasty,… Read More