What was the Battle of Khazir (686)?

Introduction The Battle of Khazir (Arabic: يوم الخازر‎, romanized: Yawm Khāzir) took place in August 686 near the Khazir River in Mosul’s eastern environs, in modern-day Iraq. The battle occurred during the Second Muslim Civil War (Second Fitna) and was part of the larger struggle for control of Iraq between the Syria-based Umayyad Caliphate, the… Read More


What were the Battles of Madhar and Harura (686)?

Introduction The battles of Madhar and Harura (Arabic transliteration: Yawm Madhār and Yawm Ḥarūrāʾ), part of the Second Fitna, successively took place in the latter half of 686 in the environs of Basra and Kufa, respectively, both in southern Iraq. The battles were fought between the forces of Mus’ab ibn al-Zubayr, the governor of Basra… Read More

What was the Battle of Marj Rahit (684)?

Introduction The Battle of Marj Rahit (Arabic: معركة/يوم مرج راهط‎, Yawm Marj Rāhiṭ) was one of the early battles of the Second Fitna. It was fought on 18 August 684 between the Kalb-dominated armies of the Yaman, supporting the Umayyads under Caliph Marwan I, and the Qays under al-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Fihri, who supported the… Read More

What was the Siege of Mecca (683)?

Introduction The Siege of Mecca in September-November 683 was one of the early battles of the Second Fitna. The city of Mecca served as a sanctuary for Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, who was among the most prominent challengers to the dynastic succession to the Caliphate by the Umayyad Yazid I. After nearby Medina, the other… Read More

What was the Second Fitna (680-692)?

Introduction The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder and conflicts in the Islamic community during the early Umayyad caliphate. It followed the death of the first Umayyad caliph Mu’awiya I in 680 and lasted for about twelve years. The war involved the suppression of two challenges to the Umayyad dynasty,… Read More