What was the Tawwabin Uprising (680-685)?

Introduction Tawwabin uprising (Arabic: ثَوْرَة ٱلتَّوَّابِين‎, Thawrah at-Tawwābīn) or the penitents uprising refers to the uprising of a group of Kufan Shia after the Battle of Karbala to take revenge for murder of Husayn ibn Ali, whom they had invited to Kufa in 680 CE (60 AH). The group was led by Sulayman ibn Surad… Read More


What was the Siege of Mecca (692)?

Introduction The siege of Mecca occurred at the end of the Second Fitna in 692 when the forces of the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan besieged and defeated his rival, the caliph Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr in his centre of power, the Islamic holy city of Mecca. After the death of Caliph Yazid in… Read More

What was the Battle of Maskin (691)?

Introduction The Battle of Maskin (Arabic: معركة مسكن‎), also known as the Battle of Dayr al-Jathaliq (Arabic: معركة دير الجثاليق‎) from a nearby Nestorian monastery, was a decisive battle of the Second Fitna (680-690). It was fought in mid-October 691 near present-day Baghdad on the western bank of the river Tigris between the army of… Read More

What was the Battle of Khazir (686)?

Introduction The Battle of Khazir (Arabic: يوم الخازر‎, romanized: Yawm Khāzir) took place in August 686 near the Khazir River in Mosul’s eastern environs, in modern-day Iraq. The battle occurred during the Second Muslim Civil War (Second Fitna) and was part of the larger struggle for control of Iraq between the Syria-based Umayyad Caliphate, the… Read More

What was the Battle of Ayn al-Warda (685)?

Introduction The Battle of Ayn al-Warda (Arabic: مَعْرَكَة‌ عَيْن ٱلْوَرْدَة‎), part of the Second Fitna, was fought in early January 685 between the Umayyad army and the Penitents (Tawwabun). The Penitents were a group of pro-Alid Kufans led by Sulayman ibn Surad, a companion of Muhammad, who wished to atone for their failure to assist… Read More

What were the Battles of Madhar and Harura (686)?

Introduction The battles of Madhar and Harura (Arabic transliteration: Yawm Madhār and Yawm Ḥarūrāʾ), part of the Second Fitna, successively took place in the latter half of 686 in the environs of Basra and Kufa, respectively, both in southern Iraq. The battles were fought between the forces of Mus’ab ibn al-Zubayr, the governor of Basra… Read More

What was the Battle of al-Harra (683)?

Introduction The Battle of al-Harra (Arabic: يوم الحرة‎, romanized: Yawm al-Ḥarra lit. ‘the day of al-Harra’) was fought between the Syrian army of the Umayyad caliph Yazid I (r. 680-683) led by Muslim ibn Uqba and the local defenders of Medina, namely the Ansar and Muhajirun factions, who had rebelled against the caliph. The battle,… Read More