Introduction The siege of Mecca occurred at the end of the Second Fitna in 692 when the forces of the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan besieged and defeated his rival, the caliph Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr in his centre of power, the Islamic holy city of Mecca. After the death of Caliph Yazid in… Read More
What was the Battle of Maskin (691)?
Introduction The Battle of Maskin (Arabic: معركة مسكن), also known as the Battle of Dayr al-Jathaliq (Arabic: معركة دير الجثاليق) from a nearby Nestorian monastery, was a decisive battle of the Second Fitna (680-690). It was fought in mid-October 691 near present-day Baghdad on the western bank of the river Tigris between the army of… Read More
What was the Battle of Khazir (686)?
Introduction The Battle of Khazir (Arabic: يوم الخازر, romanized: Yawm Khāzir) took place in August 686 near the Khazir River in Mosul’s eastern environs, in modern-day Iraq. The battle occurred during the Second Muslim Civil War (Second Fitna) and was part of the larger struggle for control of Iraq between the Syria-based Umayyad Caliphate, the… Read More
What was the Battle of Marj Rahit (684)?
Introduction The Battle of Marj Rahit (Arabic: معركة/يوم مرج راهط, Yawm Marj Rāhiṭ) was one of the early battles of the Second Fitna. It was fought on 18 August 684 between the Kalb-dominated armies of the Yaman, supporting the Umayyads under Caliph Marwan I, and the Qays under al-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Fihri, who supported the… Read More
What was the Siege of Mecca (683)?
Introduction The Siege of Mecca in September-November 683 was one of the early battles of the Second Fitna. The city of Mecca served as a sanctuary for Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, who was among the most prominent challengers to the dynastic succession to the Caliphate by the Umayyad Yazid I. After nearby Medina, the other… Read More
What was the Second Fitna (680-692)?
Introduction The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder and conflicts in the Islamic community during the early Umayyad caliphate. It followed the death of the first Umayyad caliph Mu’awiya I in 680 and lasted for about twelve years. The war involved the suppression of two challenges to the Umayyad dynasty,… Read More
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