Who was John William Finn?

Introduction John William Finn (24 July 1909 to 27 May 2010) was a sailor in the United States Navy who, as a chief petty officer, received the United States military’s highest decoration, the Medal of Honour, for his actions during the attack on Pearl Harbour in World War II. As a chief aviation ordnanceman stationed… Read More


Who was Mervyn S. Bennion?

Introduction Mervyn Sharp Bennion (05 May 1887 to 07 December 1941) was a United States Navy captain who served during World War I and was killed while he was in command of battleship USS West Virginia (BB-48) during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour in World War II. He posthumously received the Medal of Honour… Read More

What is the Winds Code?

Introduction The “Winds Code” is a confused military intelligence episode relating to the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbour, especially the advance-knowledge debate claiming that the attack was expected. Refer to World War II. Background The Winds Code was an instruction from Tokyo to Japanese legations worldwide that diplomatic relations were in danger of being ruptured.… Read More

What is the Pearl Harbour Advance-Knowledge Conspiracy Theory?

Introduction Various conspiracy theories allege that US government officials had advance knowledge of Japan’s 07 December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbour. Ever since the Japanese attack, there has been debate as to why and how the United States had been caught off guard, and how much and when American officials knew of Japanese plans for… Read More

What was the Niihau Incident (1941)?

Introduction The Niʻihau incident occurred on 07 to 13 December 1941, when Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service pilot Shigenori Nishikaichi (西開地 重徳, Nishikaichi Shigenori) crash-landed his Zero on the Hawaiian island of Niʻihau after participating in the attack on Pearl Harbour. The Imperial Japanese Navy had designated Niʻihau as an uninhabited island for damaged aircraft… Read More

What was the Attack on Pearl Harbour (1941)?

Introduction The attack on Pearl Harbour was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbour in Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, just before 08:00, on Sunday 07 December 1941. The United States was a neutral country at the time; the attack led… Read More

Who was Doris Miller?

Introduction Doris Miller (12 October 1919 to 24 November 1943) was a United States Navy cook third class who was killed in action during World War II. He was the first black American to be awarded the Navy Cross, the highest decoration for valour in combat after the Medal of Honour. Miller served aboard the… Read More