What is a Jemadar?

Introduction Jemadar or jamadar is a title used for various military and other officials in the Indian subcontinent. Etymology The word stems from Urdu (جمعدار), which derives through Persian jam(a)dar from Arabic jamā‘a(t) ‘muster’ + -dār ‘holder’. Pre-Colonial A jemadar was originally an armed official of a zamindar (feudal lord) in India who, like a… Read More

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What was the Siege of the British Residency in Kabul (1879)?

Introduction The Siege of the British Residency in Kabul was a military engagement of the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880). The British resident, Sir Louis Cavagnari and his escort were massacred after an 8-hour siege by mutinous Afghan troops inside their Residency in Kabul. This event triggered the second phase of the war, during which an… Read More