What was the Siege of the British Residency in Kabul (1879)?

Introduction The Siege of the British Residency in Kabul was a military engagement of the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880). The British resident, Sir Louis Cavagnari and his escort were massacred after an 8-hour siege by mutinous Afghan troops inside their Residency in Kabul. This event triggered the second phase of the war, during which an… Read More

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What is a Sowar?

Introduction Sowar (Hindi: सवार, Punjabi: ਸਵਾਰ, Urdu: سوار‎, also siwar meaning “the one who rides” or “rider”, from Persian sawār) was originally a rank during the Mughal Empire and Maratha Empire. Background During the British Raj it was the name in Anglo-Indian usage for a horse-soldier belonging to the cavalry troops of the native armies… Read More

What is a Sepoy?

Introduction A sepoy or সিপাহী was originally the designation given to a professional Indian infantryman, usually armed with a musket, in the armies of the Mughal Empire. In the 18th century, the French East India Company and its other European counterparts employed locally recruited soldiers within India, mainly consisting of infantry designated as “sepoys”. The… Read More