What was the Franco-Spanish War (1635-1659)?

Introduction The Franco-Spanish War (19 May 1635 to 07 November 1659) was a military conflict fought by France and Spain, with other powers participating at different points. The first phase which began in 1635 and ended with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia is considered a related conflict of the Thirty Years’ War. The second phase… Read More

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What was the Anglo-Spanish War (1654-1660)?

Introduction The Anglo-Spanish War was a conflict between the English Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell and Spain, between 1654 and 1660. It was caused by commercial rivalry. Each side attacked the other’s commercial and colonial interests in various ways such as privateering and naval expeditions. In 1655, an English amphibious expedition invaded Spanish territory in the… Read More

What was the Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (1657)?

Introduction The Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife was a military operation in the Anglo-Spanish War (1654-1660) which took place on 20 April 1657. An English fleet under Admiral Robert Blake penetrated the heavily defended harbour at Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Spanish Canary Islands and attacked their treasure fleet. The treasure had already… Read More

What was the Anglo-Spanish War (1779-1783)?

Introduction Spain played an important role in the independence of the United States (refer to the American War of Independence, 1775-1783), as part of its conflict with Britain. Spain declared war on Britain as an ally of France, itself an ally of the American colonies. Most notably, Spanish forces attacked British positions in the south… Read More

What was the Anglo-Spanish War (1762-1763)?

Introduction The Anglo–Spanish War (Spanish: Guerra Anglo-Española) was a military conflict fought between Britain and Spain, as part of the Seven Years’ War, and lasted from January 1762 to February 1763, when the Treaty of Paris brought it to an end. For most of the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763), Spain remained neutral and turned down… Read More