What was the Franco-Spanish War (1635-1659)?

Introduction The Franco-Spanish War (19 May 1635 to 07 November 1659) was a military conflict fought by France and Spain, with other powers participating at different points. The first phase which began in 1635 and ended with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia is considered a related conflict of the Thirty Years’ War. The second phase… Read More


What was the Battle of Chemnitz (1639)?

Introduction The Battle of Chemnitz (14 April 1639) took place near the town of Chemnitz, in what is now eastern Germany, during the Thirty Years’ War. Swedish forces under Johan Banér inflicted a crushing defeat on Rodolfo Giovanni Marazzino who commanded the Saxons and an Imperial detachment. The Battle The battle was a confused engagement… Read More

What was the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)?

Introduction The Thirty Years’ War (German: Dreißigjähriger Krieg) was a conflict fought in modern Germany and Central Europe from 1618 to 1648. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested that up to 60% of the… Read More

What was the Eighty Years’ War (1568-1648)?

Introduction The Eighty Years’ War (Dutch: Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Spanish: Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (23 May 1568 to 30 January 1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the… Read More

What was the Siege of Godesberg (1583)?

Introduction The Siege of Godesberg, 18 November to 17 December 1583, was the first major siege of the Cologne War (1583 to 1589). Seeking to wrest control of an important fortification, Bavarian and mercenary soldiers surrounded the Godesberg, and the village then of the same name, now Bad Godesberg, located at its foot. On top… Read More

What was the Battle of White Mountain (1620)?

Introduction The Battle of White Mountain (Czech: Bitva na Bílé hoře; German: Schlacht am Weißen Berg) was an important battle in the early stages of the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648). It was fought on 08 November 1620. An army of 15,000 Bohemians and mercenaries under Christian of Anhalt was defeated by 27,000 men of the… Read More