What was the Franco-Spanish War (1635-1659)?

Introduction The Franco-Spanish War (19 May 1635 to 07 November 1659) was a military conflict fought by France and Spain, with other powers participating at different points. The first phase which began in 1635 and ended with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia is considered a related conflict of the Thirty Years’ War. The second phase… Read More


What was the Anglo-Spanish War (1654-1660)?

Introduction The Anglo-Spanish War was a conflict between the English Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell and Spain, between 1654 and 1660. It was caused by commercial rivalry. Each side attacked the other’s commercial and colonial interests in various ways such as privateering and naval expeditions. In 1655, an English amphibious expedition invaded Spanish territory in the… Read More

What was the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)?

Introduction The Thirty Years’ War (German: Dreißigjähriger Krieg) was a conflict fought in modern Germany and Central Europe from 1618 to 1648. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested that up to 60% of the… Read More