Introduction The Spanish Road was a military road and trade route in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, linking the Duchy of Milan, the Franche-Comté and the Spanish Netherlands, all of which were at the time territories of the Spanish Empire. The Spanish Road was a vital artery for the Spanish war effort during… Read More
What was the Dutch-Portuguese War (1602-1663)?
Introduction The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire. Beginning in 1602, the conflict primarily involved the Dutch companies invading Portuguese colonies in the Americas, Africa, India, and the Far East. The war can… Read More
What was the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)?
Introduction The Thirty Years’ War (German: Dreißigjähriger Krieg) was a conflict fought in modern Germany and Central Europe from 1618 to 1648. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested that up to 60% of the… Read More
What was the Eighty Years’ War (1568-1648)?
Introduction The Eighty Years’ War (Dutch: Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Spanish: Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (23 May 1568 to 30 January 1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the… Read More
What was the Cologne War (1583-1588)?
Introduction The Cologne War (1583-1588) was a conflict between Protestant and Catholic factions that devastated the Electorate of Cologne, a historical ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire, within present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, in Germany. The war occurred within the context of the Protestant Reformation in Germany and the subsequent Counter-Reformation, and concurrently with the Dutch… Read More
What was the Sack of Antwerp (1576)?
Introduction The Sack of Antwerp, often known as the Spanish Fury at Antwerp, was an episode of the Eighty Years’ War. It is the greatest massacre in Belgian history. On 04 November 1576, mutinying Spanish tercios of the Army of Flanders began the sack of Antwerp, leading to three days of horror among the population… Read More
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