What was the Cologne War (1583-1588)?

Introduction The Cologne War (1583-1588) was a conflict between Protestant and Catholic factions that devastated the Electorate of Cologne, a historical ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire, within present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, in Germany. The war occurred within the context of the Protestant Reformation in Germany and the subsequent Counter-Reformation, and concurrently with the Dutch… Read More


What was the Destruction of Neuss (1586)?

Introduction The Destruction of Neuss occurred in July 1586, during the Cologne War (1583 to 1588). Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma’s troops surrounded the city of Neuss, an important Protestant garrison in the Electorate of Cologne. After the city refused to capitulate, Parma’s army reduced the city to rubble through a combination of artillery fire,… Read More