What was the Cromwellian Conquest of Ireland (1649-1653)?

Introduction The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, or Cromwellian war in Ireland, (15 August 1649 to 27 April 1653) was the re-conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Cromwell invaded Ireland with the New Model Army on behalf of England’s Rump Parliament… Read More


What was the Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (1657)?

Introduction The Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife was a military operation in the Anglo-Spanish War (1654-1660) which took place on 20 April 1657. An English fleet under Admiral Robert Blake penetrated the heavily defended harbour at Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Spanish Canary Islands and attacked their treasure fleet. The treasure had already… Read More

Force & Foe…

“Who overcomes by force, hath overcome but half his foe.” John Milton (1608 to 1674) John Milton was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and… Read More