PSYOP Evaluation: Misunderstanding Affects Effectiveness

Discussion Paper Title

Falling Short in Measures of Effectiveness.


“PSYOP [psychological operations] has been an integral part of military operations since the world’s earliest documented battles, with the first cases being cited as occurring over 3,000 years ago. The idea of understanding, and ultimately exploiting, the motivations and vulnerabilities of an enemy in order to merge victorious in battle has been utilized by some of history’s most recognizable leaders, such as Genghis Khan, Alexander the Great and Tamerlane; some of history’s most infamous dictators, such as Kim Il Sung, Mao Zedong and Adolf Hitler; and has been documented in some of military history’s greatest written works, such as The Arthashastra and Sun Tzu’s The Art of War.”


Holzmann, A. & O’Connell, W. (2016) Falling Short in Measures of Effectiveness. Small Wars Journal. Available from World Wide Web: [Accessed: 04 September, 2016].


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