What are Military Operations Other Than War?

Introduction Military operations other than war (MOOTW) focus on deterring war, resolving conflict, promoting peace, and supporting civil authorities in response to domestic crises. The phrase and acronym were coined by the US military during the 1990s, but it has since fallen out of use. The UK military has crafted an equivalent or alternate term,… Read More


What is An Agenda for Peace?

Introduction An Agenda for Peace: Preventive diplomacy, peacemaking and peace-keeping, more commonly known simply as An Agenda for Peace, is a report written for the United Nations by Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali in 1992. Refer to Peace Enforcement. Outline In it, Boutros-Ghali responds to a request by the UN Security Council for an “analysis and recommendations”… Read More

What is Peace?

Introduction Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility and violence. In a social sense, peace is commonly used to mean a lack of conflict (such as war) and freedom from fear of violence between individuals or groups. Throughout history, leaders have used peacemaking and diplomacy to establish a… Read More

What is Peacemaking?

Introduction Peacemaking is practical conflict transformation focused upon establishing equitable power relationships robust enough to forestall future conflict, often including the establishment of means of agreeing on ethical decisions within a community, or among parties, that had previously engaged in inappropriate (i.e. violent) responses to conflict. Peacemaking seeks to achieve full reconciliation among adversaries and… Read More

What is Peacekeeping?

Introduction Peacekeeping comprises activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace. Research generally finds that peacekeeping reduces civilian and battlefield deaths, as well as reduces the risk of renewed warfare. Within the United Nations (UN) group of nation-state governments and organisations, there is a general understanding that at the international level, peacekeepers monitor and… Read More

What is Peace Enforcement?

Introduction Peace enforcement is the use of military force to compel peace in a conflict, generally against the will of combatants. To do this, it generally requires more military force than peacekeeping operations. The United Nations, through its Security Council per Chapter VII of its charter, has the ability to authorise force to enforce its… Read More

What is a Peace Process?

Introduction A peace process is the set of sociopolitical negotiations, agreements and actions that aim to solve a specific armed conflict. Refer to Peace Enforcement, Peacekeeping, and Peacemaking. Definitions Prior to an armed conflict occurring, peace processes can include the prevention of an intra-state or inter-state dispute from escalating into military conflict. The United Nations… Read More