What was the Shanghai Massacre (1927)?

Introduction The Shanghai massacre of 12 April 1927, the April 12 Purge or the April 12 Incident as it is commonly known in China, was the violent suppression of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) organisations and leftist elements in Shanghai by forces supporting General Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party, or… Read More

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What was the Long March (1934-1935)?

Introduction The Long March (Chinese: 长征; pinyin: Chángzhēng, lit. Long Expedition) was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the forerunner of the People’s Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang army (Refer to Chinese Civil War). Strictly speaking, the Long March was a series of… Read More

What was the Campaign at the China-Burma Border (1960-1961)?

Introduction The Campaign at the China–Burma border (simplified Chinese: 中缅边境作战; traditional Chinese: 中緬邊境作戰) was a series of battles fought at and around the China-Burma border after the Chinese Civil War, with the communist People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Burma on one side and the nationalist forces of the Republic of China… Read More

An Overview of the Kuomintang in Burma (1950-1961)

Introduction The Kuomintang (KMT) in Burma (Chinese: 泰緬孤軍; pinyin: Tài Miǎn gūjūn; lit. ‘Thailand–Burma lone army’) were Chinese Nationalist troops that fled from Communist-controlled Red China to Burma in 1950 after their defeat by the Communists in the Chinese Civil War (1927-1949). Officially the Yunnan Anti-communist National Salvation Army (sometimes referred to in English as… Read More

What was the Chinese Communist Revolution?

Introduction The Chinese Communist Revolution, known in the mainland China as the War of Liberation (simplified Chinese: 解放战争; traditional Chinese: 解放戰爭; pinyin: Jiěfàng Zhànzhēng), was the conflict, led by the Communist Party of China and Chairman Mao Zedong, that resulted in the proclamation of the People’s Republic of China, on 01 October 1949. The revolution… Read More

What was the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)?

The Second Sino-Japanese War (07 July 1937 to 02 September 1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. Refer to First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895). In China, the war is known as the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression (simplified Chinese: 中国抗日战争; traditional Chinese: 中國抗日戰爭;… Read More

What was the Chinese Civil War (1927-1949)?

The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Communist Party of China (CPC) lasting intermittently between 1927 and 1949. The war is generally divided into two phases with an interlude: from August 1927 to 1937, the KMT-CPC Alliance collapsed… Read More