What was the Centralia Massacre (1919)?

Introduction The Centralia Tragedy, also known as the Centralia Conspiracy and the Armistice Day Riot, was a violent and bloody incident that occurred in Centralia, Washington, on 11 November 1919, during a parade celebrating the first anniversary of Armistice Day. The conflict between the American Legion and Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or “Wobblies”)… Read More


What is the Glade of the Armistice?

Introduction The Glade of the Armistice (French: Clairière de l’Armistice) is a French national and war memorial in the Forest of Compiègne in Picardy, France, near the city of Compiègne and approximately 60 kilometres (37 miles) north of Paris. It was built at the location where the Germans signed the Armistice of 11 November 1918… Read More

What was the Armistice of 22 June 1940?

Introduction The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36 near Compiègne, France, by officials of Nazi Germany and the Third French Republic. It did not come into effect until after midnight on 25 June. Signatories for Germany included Wilhelm Keitel, a senior military officer, the commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht (the German armed forces),… Read More

What is an Armistice?

Introduction An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting. It is not necessarily the end of a war, as it may constitute only a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace. It is derived from the Latin arma, meaning “arms” (as in weapons) and -stitium,… Read More

What was the Compiegne Wagon?

Introduction The Compiègne Wagon was the train carriage in which both the Armistice of 11 November 1918 and Armistice of 22 June 1940 were signed. Before the 1918 signing in the Forest of Compiègne, the wagon served as the personal carriage of Ferdinand Foch and was later displayed in French museums. However, after the successful… Read More

What was the Armistice of 11 November 1918?

Introduction The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice signed at Le Francport near Compiègne that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last remaining opponent, Germany. Previous armistices had been agreed with Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Also known as the… Read More

Why Veterans Day was Created

Veterans Day is permanently observed in the US on 11 November every year. Many people look at the federal holiday, Veterans Day, as “just another three day weekend” or a reason to go shopping and “catch sales”. However, there is so much more meaning to Veterans Day than an extra day off work. Veterans Day… Read More