What is Military Urbanism?

Introduction Military urbanism is the militarisation of urban areas. Overview This can include changes to built environments in military conflict areas or modifications of cityscapes to strengthen or subvert control by authorities. Military urbanism concerns the planning and implementation processes by which areas are fortified and militarised. Refer to Militia, Gendarmerie, and Paramilitary. This page… Read More


What is a Paramilitary?

Introduction A paramilitary is an organisation whose structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but is not part of a country’s official or legitimate armed forces. Paramilitary units carry out duties that a country’s military or police forces are unable or unwilling to handle. Other organisations may… Read More

What is the Gendarmerie?

Introduction A gendarmerie is a military force with law enforcement duties among the civilian population. The term gendarme is derived from the medieval French expression gens d’armes, which translates to “men-at-arms” (literally, “armed people”). In France and some Francophone nations, the gendarmerie is a branch of the armed forces that is responsible for internal security… Read More

What were the Dignity Battalions (1988-1990)?

Introduction Dignity Battalions (Spanish: Batallones de la Dignidad) were paramilitary militia units created by Panama’s de facto ruler Manuel Noriega in April 1988 to augment the Panama Defence Forces in defending Panama against possible invasion by the United States and to suppress domestic political opposition to Noriega’s regime. They were dissolved on 10 February 1990,… Read More

What was the Troubles (1960s-1998)?

Introduction The Troubles (Irish: Na Trioblóidí) were an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland that lasted about 30 years from the late 1960s to 1998. Also known internationally as the Northern Ireland conflict, it is sometimes described as an “irregular war” or “low-level war”. The conflict began in the late 1960s and is usually deemed to… Read More