What is Military Urbanism?

Introduction Military urbanism is the militarisation of urban areas. Overview This can include changes to built environments in military conflict areas or modifications of cityscapes to strengthen or subvert control by authorities. Military urbanism concerns the planning and implementation processes by which areas are fortified and militarised. Refer to Militia, Gendarmerie, and Paramilitary. This page… Read More


What is a Paramilitary?

Introduction A paramilitary is an organisation whose structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but is not part of a country’s official or legitimate armed forces. Paramilitary units carry out duties that a country’s military or police forces are unable or unwilling to handle. Other organisations may… Read More

What is the Gendarmerie?

Introduction A gendarmerie is a military force with law enforcement duties among the civilian population. The term gendarme is derived from the medieval French expression gens d’armes, which translates to “men-at-arms” (literally, “armed people”). In France and some Francophone nations, the gendarmerie is a branch of the armed forces that is responsible for internal security… Read More

An Overview of the Militarisation of the Police

Introduction The militarisation of police (paramilitarisation of police in some media) is the use of military equipment and tactics by law enforcement officers. This includes the use of armoured personnel carriers (APCs), assault rifles, submachine guns, flashbang grenades, sniper rifles, and SWAT (special weapons and tactics) teams. The militarisation of law enforcement is also associated… Read More