What is a Razakar (Pakistan)?

Introduction Razakar Urdu: رضا کار, literally “volunteer”; Bengali: রাজাকার) was an East Pakistani paramilitary force organised by General Tikka Khan in then East Pakistan, now called Bangladesh, during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. The force is accused of committing war crimes during the war including massacring civilians, loot and rape. Refer to Chinilpa and… Read More


What is a Makapili?

Introduction The Makabayang Katipunan ng mga Pilipino (Patriotic Association of Filipinos), better known as the Makapili, was a militant group formed in the Philippines in 08 December 1944 during World War II to give military aid to the Imperial Japanese Army. The group was meant to be on equal basis with the Japanese Army and… Read More

What is a Chinilpa?

Introduction Chinilpa (Korean: 친일파, lit. “pro-Japan faction”) is a derogatory Korean language term that denotes ethnic Koreans who collaborated with Imperial Japan during the protectorate period of the Korean Empire from 1905 and its colonial rule in Korea from 1910 to 1945 (refer to World War II). The term is distinct from ji-ilpa (Hangul: 지일파;… Read More

Who was Eliezer Gruenbaum?

Introduction Eliezer Grynbaum or Eliezer Gruenbaum (27 November 1908 to 22 May 1948) was a Polish Jewish communist activist. During World War II, he was a kapo in the Auschwitz concentration camp. After the war, he wrote memoirs about his experiences. Refer to Belsen Trials. Biography Eliezer Gruenbaum was born in Warsaw in 1908, the… Read More

What was a Kapo?

Introduction A kapo or prisoner functionary (German: Funktionshäftling) was a prisoner in a Nazi camp who was assigned by the Schutzstaffel (SS) guards to supervise forced labour or carry out administrative tasks (refer to World War II). Also called “prisoner self-administration”, the prisoner functionary system minimised costs by allowing camps to function with fewer SS… Read More

What Does the Term Quisling Mean?

Introduction Quisling (/ˈkwɪzlɪŋ/, Norwegian: [ˈkvɪ̂slɪŋ]) is a term used in Scandinavian languages and in English meaning a citizen or politician of an occupied country who collaborates with an enemy occupying force – or more generally as a synonym for traitor. The word originates from the surname of the Norwegian war-time leader Vidkun Quisling, who headed… Read More

What does the Term Jash Mean?

Introduction Jash (Kurdish: جاش, romanised: Caş, lit. ’donkey’s foal’) is a Kurdish term for a traitor, or a type of collaborator, either a military unit composed of Kurds or an individual which cooperates with enemy combatants against the Kurdish people, Kurdish political interests, or the Kurdish Army. The term is considered derogatory in a cultural sense,… Read More