Collaboration with the Islamic State: A Brief Overview

Introduction Collaboration with the Islamic State refers to the cooperation and assistance given by governments, non-state actors, and private individuals to IS during the Syrian Civil War, Iraqi Civil War, and Libyan Civil War. The Islamic State (IS), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State (ISIL), the Islamic State… Read More


An Overview of War Children

Introduction War children are those born to a native parent and a parent belonging to a foreign military force (usually an occupying force, but also military personnel stationed at military bases on foreign soil). Having a child by a member of a belligerent force, throughout history and across cultures, is often considered a grave betrayal… Read More

An Overview of Collaboration with the Axis Powers

Introduction Within nations occupied by the Axis powers in World War II, some citizens and organisations, prompted by antisemitism, nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism and opportunism, collaborated with the Axis Powers. Collaborators committed some of the worst atrocities of the Holocaust. Collaboration has been defined as cooperation between elements of the population of a defeated state… Read More

A Brief Overview of the Inner Mongolian Army

Introduction The Inner Mongolian Army, also sometimes called the Mengjiang National Army, referred to the Inner Mongolian military units in service of Imperial Japan and its puppet state of Mengjiang during the Second Sino-Japanese War, particularly those led by Prince Demchugdongrub. It was primarily a force of cavalry units, which mostly consisted of ethnic Mongols,… Read More

A Brief Overview of the East Hopei Army?

Introduction The East Hopei Army (or East Hebei Army) was raised from the former soldiers of the Peace Preservation Corps that had been created by the Tangku Truce of 31 May 1933. The Demilitarised Zone Peace Preservation Corps had been the “neutral” force policing the demilitarised area south of the Great Wall when Yin Ju-keng,… Read More

An Overview of the Manchukuo Imperial Army?

Introduction The Manchukuo Imperial Army (Chinese: 滿洲國軍; pinyin: Mǎnzhōuguó jūn) was the ground force of the military of the Empire of Manchukuo, a puppet state established by Imperial Japan in Manchuria, a region of northeastern China. The force was primarily used for fighting against Communist and Nationalist guerrillas in Manchukuo but also took part in… Read More

Linking Knowledge, Novices, & Collaboration in Learning Outcomes for Teams

Research Paper Title Effects of Prior Knowledge on Collaborative and Individual Learning. Background Collaborative learning is an extensively used instructional technique by which individuals interact in small groups to learn to solve academic problems. This study aimed to determine the impact of task-specific prior knowledge on individual learners and collaborative groups that were instructed to… Read More