An Overview of Collaboration with the Axis Powers

Introduction Within nations occupied by the Axis powers in World War II, some citizens and organisations, prompted by antisemitism, nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism and opportunism, collaborated with the Axis Powers. Collaborators committed some of the worst atrocities of the Holocaust. Collaboration has been defined as cooperation between elements of the population of a defeated state… Read More


What was Wiedergutmachung?

Introduction The German word Wiedergutmachung after World War II refers to the reparations that the German government agreed to pay in 1953 to the direct survivors of the Holocaust, and to those who were made to work at forced labour camps or who otherwise became victims of the Nazis. The sum would amount, through the… Read More

An Overview of the Phrase “Never Again”

Introduction “Never again” is a phrase or slogan which is associated with the Holocaust and other genocides. The phrase may originate from a 1927 poem by Yitzhak Lamdan which stated “Never again shall Masada fall!” In the context of genocide, the slogan was used by liberated prisoners at Buchenwald concentration camp to express anti-fascist sentiment.… Read More