On This Day … 11 March


  • 222 – Emperor Elagabalus is assassinated, along with his mother, Julia Soaemias, by the Praetorian Guard during a revolt. Their mutilated bodies are dragged through the streets of Rome before being thrown into the Tiber.
  • 1387 – Battle of Castagnaro: English condottiero Sir John Hawkwood leads Padova to victory in a factional clash with Verona.
  • 1641 – Guaraní forces living in the Jesuit reductions defeat bandeirantes loyal to the Portuguese Empire at the Battle of Mbororé in present-day Panambí, Argentina.
  • 1649 – The Frondeurs and the French sign the Peace of Rueil.
  • 1708 – Queen Anne withholds Royal Assent from the Scottish Militia Bill, the last time a British monarch vetoes legislation.
  • 1784 – The signing of the Treaty of Mangalore brings the Second Anglo-Mysore War to an end.
  • 1811 – During André Masséna’s retreat from the Lines of Torres Vedras, a division led by French Marshal Michel Ney fights off a combined Anglo-Portuguese force to give Masséna time to escape.
  • 1824 – The United States Department of War creates the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • 1845 – Flagstaff War: Unhappy with translational differences regarding the Treaty of Waitangi, chiefs Hone Heke, Kawiti and Māori tribe members chop down the British flagpole for a fourth time and drive settlers out of Kororareka, New Zealand.
  • 1861 – American Civil War: The Constitution of the Confederate States of America is adopted.
  • 1879 – Shō Tai formally abdicated his position of King of Ryūkyū, under orders from Tokyo, ending the Ryukyu Kingdom.
  • 1917 – World War I: Mesopotamian campaign: Baghdad falls to Anglo-Indian forces commanded by General Stanley Maude.
  • 1931 – Ready for Labour and Defence of the USSR, abbreviated as GTO, is introduced in the Soviet Union.
  • 1941 – World War II: United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act into law, allowing American-built war supplies to be shipped to the Allies on loan.
  • 1945 – World War II: The Imperial Japanese Navy attempts a large-scale kamikaze attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet anchored at Ulithi atoll in Operation Tan No. 2.
  • 1945 – World War II: The Empire of Vietnam, a short-lived Japanese puppet state, is established with Bảo Đại as its ruler.
  • 1946 – Rudolf Höss, the first commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp, is captured by British troops.
  • 1975 – Vietnam War: North Vietnamese and Viet Cong guerrilla forces establish control over Buôn Ma Thuột commune from the South Vietnamese army.
  • 1983 – Pakistan successfully conducts a cold test of a nuclear weapon.
  • 1985 – Mikhail Gorbachev is elected to the position of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union making Gorbachev the USSR’s de facto, and last, head of state.
  • 1989 – Sir Tim Berners-Lee submitted his proposal to CERN for an information management system which would be developed into the world wide web.
  • 1990 – Lithuania declares itself independent from the Soviet Union.
  • 2007 – Georgia claims Russian helicopters attacked the Kodori Valley in Abkhazia, an accusation that Russia categorically denies later.
  • 2012 – A U.S. soldier kills 16 civilians in the Panjwayi District of Afghanistan near Kandahar.

People (Births)

  • 1634 – Nicholas Gassaway, English colonial military and political leader (d. 1691).
  • 1738 – Benjamin Tupper, American general (d. 1792).
  • 1787 – Ivan Nabokov, Russian general (d. 1852).
  • 1884 – Ömer Seyfettin, Turkish soldier, author, and educator (d. 1920).
  • 1887 – Kâzım Orbay, Turkish general and politician (d. 1964).
  • 1899 – James H. Douglas, Jr., American colonel, lawyer, and politician, 9th United States Deputy Secretary of Defense (d. 1988).
  • 1900 – Hanna Bergas, German teacher who contributed to the rescue of Jewish children during WWII (d. 1987).
  • 1913 – Wolf-Dietrich Wilcke, German colonel and pilot (d. 1944).

People (Deaths)

  • 1646 – Stanisław Koniecpolski, Polish soldier and statesman (b. c. 1592).
  • 1759 – John Forbes, Scottish general (b. 1710).
  • 1863 – Sir James Outram, 1st Baronet, English general (b. 1803).
  • 1898 – William Rosecrans, American general and politician (b. 1819).
  • 1949 – Anastasios Charalambis, Greek general and politician, 109th Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1862).
  • 1949 – Henri Giraud, French general and politician (b. 1879).
  • 1957 – Richard E. Byrd, American admiral and explorer (b. 1888).
  • 1969 – John Wyndham, English soldier and author (b. 1903).
  • 2012 – James B. Morehead, American colonel and pilot (b. 1916).
  • 2013 – Florian Siwicki, Polish general and politician (b. 1925).

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