What are The New York Accords (1988)?

Introduction The Agreement among the People’s Republic of Angola, the Republic of Cuba, and the Republic of South Africa (also known as the Tripartite Accord, Three Powers Accord or New York Accords) granted independence to Namibia from South Africa and ended the direct involvement of foreign troops in the Angolan Civil War. The accords were… Read More


What was the South African Border War (1966-1990)?

Introduction The South African Border War, also known as the Namibian War of Independence, and sometimes denoted in South Africa as the Angolan Bush War, was a largely asymmetric conflict that occurred in Namibia (then South West Africa), Zambia, and Angola from 26 August 1966 to 21 March 1990. It was fought between the South… Read More

What is Cassinga Day?

Introduction Cassinga Day is a national public holiday in Namibia remembering the Cassinga Massacre. Background Commemorated annually on 04 May, the date “remembers those (approximately 600) killed in 1978 when the South African Defence Force attacked a [South West Africa People’s Organisation] SWAPO base at Cassinga in southern Angola”. Commemorations are marked yearly by ceremonies… Read More

What was Operation Savannah (Angola) (1975-1976)?

Introduction Operation Savannah was the South African code name for their military incursion into Angola in 1975-1976. In Angola, these actions were known as the 1975-1976 South African Invasion and the Luanda Conquest Campaign. It was part of the South African Border War and arose due to the Angolan War of Independence. The operation also… Read More