What were the Dignity Battalions (1988-1990)?

Introduction Dignity Battalions (Spanish: Batallones de la Dignidad) were paramilitary militia units created by Panama’s de facto ruler Manuel Noriega in April 1988 to augment the Panama Defence Forces in defending Panama against possible invasion by the United States and to suppress domestic political opposition to Noriega’s regime. They were dissolved on 10 February 1990,… Read More


What was the Raid at Renacer Prison (1989)?

Introduction The Raid at Renacer Prison was an attack on the El Renacer prison in Gamboa, Panama, by units of the 82nd Airborne Division of the US Army on 20 December 1989, during the United States invasion of Panama (Operation Just Cause). During the raid the US military freed the sixty-four prisoners held in the… Read More

What was Operation Acid Gambit (1989)?

Introduction Operation Acid Gambit was a Delta Force operation that retrieved Kurt Muse, an American spy living in Panama who had been arrested for plotting the overthrow of the government of Panama, from the Cárcel Modelo, a notorious prison in Panama City. Refer to Operation Just Cause (1989-1990) and Raid on Renacer Prison (1989). Background… Read More

What was Operation Sand Flea (1989)?

Introduction Operation Sand Flea was a series of training exercises for the December 1989 invasion of Panama by the United States. Refer to Operation Just Cause (1989-1990). Outline These troop movements and practice assaults were conducted in part as training to defend the Panama Canal (a contingency then called Purple Storm), but were also intended… Read More

What was Operation Purple Storm (1989)?

Introduction Exercise Purple Storm was a series of United States Southern Command, or the US Army South, exercises in Panama in 1989 that aimed to both assert United States treaty rights and to conduct tactical rehearsals for Operation Just Cause (1989-1990). Outline These exercises were carried out, according to the US military, to protect the… Read More

What was Operation Prayer Book (1988)?

Introduction Prayer Book was a series of military plans operations in Panama drawn up beginning in April 1988 as relations between the United States and Panama deteriorated. Refer to Operation Just Cause (1989-1990). Outline The operation consisted of four separate operations: Originally, these operations were all parts of one operation named Elaborate Maze. Prayer Book… Read More

What was Operation Nifty Package (1989)?

Introduction Operation Nifty Package was a United States Delta and Navy SEAL-operated plan conducted in 1989 designed to capture Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega. When Noriega took refuge in the Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See (diplomatic quarter), deafening music and other psychological warfare tactics were used to convince him to exit and surrender himself. The… Read More