What was Operation Sand Flea (1989)?

Introduction Operation Sand Flea was a series of training exercises for the December 1989 invasion of Panama by the United States. Refer to Operation Just Cause (1989-1990). Outline These troop movements and practice assaults were conducted in part as training to defend the Panama Canal (a contingency then called Purple Storm), but were also intended… Read More


What was Operation Just Cause (1989-1990)?

Introduction The United States invasion of Panama, codenamed Operation Just Cause, lasted over a month between mid-December 1989 and late January 1990. It occurred during the administration of President George H.W. Bush and ten years after the Torrijos-Carter Treaties were ratified to transfer control of the Panama Canal from the United States to Panama by… Read More