What was the Russo-Swedish War (1741-1743)?

Introduction The Russo-Swedish War of 1741–1743 (also known as The War of the Hats) was instigated by the Hats, a Swedish political party that aspired to regain the territories lost to Russia during the Great Northern War, and by French diplomacy, which sought to divert Russia’s attention from supporting its long-standing ally the Habsburg monarchy… Read More


What was the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714)?

Introduction The War of the Spanish Succession (July 1701 to 11 September 1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintaining the balance of power between different countries. Related conflicts include the Great… Read More

What was the Siege of Fredriksten (1718)?

Introduction The Siege of Fredriksten (Beleiringen av Fredriksten festning) was an attack on the Norwegian fortress of Fredriksten in the city of Fredrikshald, (now Halden) by King Charles XII of Sweden. While inspecting his troops’ lines, Charles XII was killed by a projectile. The Swedes broke the siege off, and the Norwegians held the fortress.… Read More

What were the Northern Wars (1554-1721)?

“Northern Wars” is a term used for a series of wars fought in northern and northeastern Europe in the 16th and 17th century. An internationally agreed nomenclature for these wars has not yet been devised. While the Great Northern War is generally considered to be the last of the Northern Wars, there are different scholarly… Read More

What was the Battle of Lesnaya (1708)?

Introduction The Battle of Lesnaya (Russian: Битва при Лесной Bitva pri Lesnoy, Swedish: Slaget vid Lesna, Polish: Bitwa pod Leśną) was one of the major battles of the Great Northern War. It took place on 28 September 1708 (O.S.)/29 September 1708 (Swedish calendar)/09 October 1708 (N.S.) between a Russian army of between 26,500 and 29,000… Read More