- 46 BC – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina.
- 871 – Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfred are defeated by a Danish invasion army.
- 1649 – English Civil War: The Rump Parliament votes to put Charles I on trial.
- 1717 – The Netherlands, Great Britain, and France sign the Triple Alliance.
- 1762 – Great Britain declares war on Spain, which meant the entry of Spain into the Seven Years’ War.
- 1854 – The McDonald Islands are discovered by Captain William McDonald aboard the Samarang.
- 1878 – Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878): Sofia is liberated from Ottoman rule.
- 1885 – Sino-French War: French troops under General Oscar de Négrier defeat a numerically superior Qing force at Núi Bop in northern Vietnam.
- 1918 – The Finnish Declaration of Independence is recognised by Russia, Sweden, Germany and France.
- 1944 – World War II: Operation Carpetbagger, involving the dropping of arms and supplies to resistance fighters in Europe, begins.
- 1948 – Burma gains its independence from the United Kingdom, becoming an independent republic.
- 1951 – Korean War: Chinese and North Korean forces capture Seoul for the second time.
- 1976 – The Troubles: The Ulster Volunteer Force shoots dead six Irish Catholic civilians in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.
- The next day, gunmen would shoot dead ten Protestant civilians nearby in retaliation.
- 1989 – Second Gulf of Sidra incident: A pair of Libyan MiG-23 “Floggers” are shot down by a pair of US Navy F-14 Tomcats during an air-to-air confrontation.
- 2004 – Mikheil Saakashvili is elected President of Georgia following the November 2003 Rose Revolution.
- Independence Day (Myanmar), celebrates the independence of Myanmar from the United Kingdom in 1948.
- 1809 – Louis Braille, French educator, invented Braille (d. 1852).
- 1832 – George Tryon, English admiral (d. 1893).
- 1848 – Katsura Tarō, Japanese general and politician, 6th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1913).
- 1895 – Leroy Grumman, American engineer and businessman, co-founded Grumman Aeronautical Engineering Co. (d. 1982).
- 1973 – Frank Høj, Danish cyclist.
- 1974 – Danilo Hondo, German cyclist.
- 1975 – Shane Carwin, American mixed martial artist and wrestler.
- 1986 – Andrei Krauchanka, Belarusian decathlete.
- 1695 – François-Henri de Montmorency, duc de Luxembourg, French general (b. 1628).
- 1782 – Ange-Jacques Gabriel, French architect, designed École Militaire (b. 1698).
- 1863 – Roger Hanson, American general (b. 1827).
- 1883 – Antoine Chanzy, French general (b. 1823).
- 1943 – Jerzy Iwanow-Szajnowicz, Greek-Polish swimmer and water polo player (b. 1911).
- 1943 – Marina Raskova, Russian military pilot and navigator (b. 1912).
- 1985 – Brian Horrocks, Indian-English general (b. 1895).
- 2013 – Anwar Shamim, Pakistani general (b. 1931).
- 2019 – Harold Brown, 14th United States Secretary of Defence (b. 1927).