On This Day … 28 April [2022]


  • 224 – The Battle of Hormozdgan is fought. Ardashir I defeats and kills Artabanus V effectively ending the Parthian Empire.
  • 357 – Emperor Constantius II enters Rome for the first time to celebrate his victory over Magnus Magnentius.
  • 1192 – Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I), King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title to the throne is confirmed by election.
    • The killing is carried out by Hashshashin.
  • 1503 – The Battle of Cerignola is fought.
    • It is noted as one of the first European battles in history won by small arms fire using gunpowder.
  • 1625 – A combined Spanish and Portuguese fleet of 52 ships commences the recapture of Bahia from the Dutch during the Dutch-Portuguese War.
  • 1758 – The Marathas defeat the Afghans in the Battle of Attock and capture the city.
  • 1789 – Mutiny on the Bounty: Lieutenant William Bligh and 18 sailors are set adrift and the rebel crew returns to Tahiti briefly and then sets sail for Pitcairn Island.
  • 1792 – France invades the Austrian Netherlands (present day Belgium and Luxembourg), beginning the French Revolutionary Wars.
  • 1794 – Sardinians, headed by Giovanni Maria Angioy, start a revolution against the Savoy domination, expelling Viceroy Balbiano and his officials from Cagliari, the capital and largest city of the island.
  • 1796 – The Armistice of Cherasco is signed by Napoleon Bonaparte and Vittorio Amedeo III, King of Sardinia, expanding French territory along the Mediterranean coast.
  • 1887 – A week after being arrested by the Prussian Secret Police, French police inspector Guillaume Schnaebelé is released on order of William I, German Emperor, defusing a possible war.
  • 1920 – The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic is founded.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Ustaše massacre nearly 200 Serbs in the village of Gudovac, the first massacre of their genocidal campaign against Serbs of the Independent State of Croatia.
  • 1944 – World War II: Nine German E-boats attacked US and UK units during Exercise Tiger, the rehearsal for the Normandy landings, killing 946.
  • 1945 – World War II: Benito Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci are shot dead by Walter Audisio, a member of the Italian resistance movement.
  • 1945 – World War II: Nazi Germany carries out its final use of gas chambers to execute 33 Upper Austrian socialist and communist leaders in Mauthausen concentration camp.
  • 1952 – Dwight D. Eisenhower resigns as Supreme Allied Commander of NATO in order to campaign in the 1952 United States presidential election.
  • 1952 – The Treaty of San Francisco comes into effect, restoring Japanese sovereignty and ending its state of war with most of the Allies of World War II.
  • 1952 – The Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty (Treaty of Taipei) is signed in Taipei, Taiwan between Japan and the Republic of China to officially end the Second Sino-Japanese War.
  • 1965 – United States occupation of the Dominican Republic: American troops land in the Dominican Republic to “forestall establishment of a Communist dictatorship” and to evacuate US Army troops.
  • 1967 – Vietnam War: Boxer Muhammad Ali refuses his induction into the US Army and is subsequently stripped of his championship and license.
  • 1969 – Charles de Gaulle, a World War II general, resigns as President of France.
  • 1970 – Vietnam War: US President Richard Nixon formally authorises American combat troops to take part in the Cambodian campaign.
  • 1975 – Vietnam War: General Cao Văn Viên, chief of the South Vietnamese military, departs for the US as the North Vietnamese Army closes in on victory.
  • 1978 – The President of Afghanistan, Mohammed Daoud Khan, is overthrown and assassinated in a coup led by pro-communist rebels.
  • 1993 – A Zambia Air Force DHC-5 Buffalo crashes off the coast of Libreville, Gabon, killing all 30 passengers, which included the entire Zambia national football team.
  • 2004 – CBS News released evidence of the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse.
    • The photographs show rape and abuse from the American troops over Iraqi detainees.
  • Mujahideen Victory Day (Afghanistan).
  • Restoration of Sovereignty Day (Japan).
  • Sardinia Day (Sardinia).

People (Births)

  • 1402 – Nezahualcoyotl, Acolhuan philosopher, warrior, poet and ruler (d. 1472).
  • 1545 – Yi Sun-sin, Korean commander (d. 1598).
  • 1604 – Joris Jansen Rapelje, Dutch settler in colonial North America (d. 1662).
  • 1758 – James Monroe, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 5th President of the United States (d. 1831).
  • 1827 – William Hall, Canadian soldier, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 1904).
  • 1886 – Art Shaw, American hurdler (d. 1955).
  • 1888 – Walter Tull, English footballer and soldier (d. 1918).
  • 1897 – Ye Jianying, Chinese general and politician, Head of State of the People’s Republic of China (d. 1986).
  • 1900 – Heinrich Müller, German SS officer (d. 1945).
  • 1901 – H.B. Stallard, English runner and surgeon (d. 1973).
  • 1912 – Odette Hallowes, French soldier and spy (d. 1995).
  • 1921 – Rowland Evans, American soldier, journalist, and author (d. 2001).
  • 1923 – William Guarnere, US Army sergeant and paratrooper in Easy Company (d. 2014).
  • 1925 – John Leonard Thorn, English lieutenant, author, and academic.
  • 1926 – Hulusi Sayın, Turkish general (d. 1991).
  • 1937 – Saddam Hussein, Iraqi general and politician, 5th President of Iraq (d. 2006).
  • 1941 – Lucien Aimar, French cyclist.
  • 1980 – Bradley Wiggins, English cyclist.
  • 1985 – Lucas Jakubczyk, German sprinter and long jumper.

People (Deaths)

  • 948 – Hu Jinsi, Chinese general and prefect.
  • 1741 – Magnus Julius De la Gardie, Swedish general and politician (b. 1668).
  • 1813 – Mikhail Kutuzov, Russian field marshal (b. 1745).
  • 1905 – Fitzhugh Lee, American general and politician, 40th Governor of Virginia (b. 1835).
  • 1945 – Roberto Farinacci, Italian soldier and politician (b. 1892).
  • 1945 – Hermann Fegelein, German general (b. 1906).
  • 1957 – Heinrich Bär, German colonel and pilot (b. 1913).
  • 1978 – Mohammed Daoud Khan, Afghan commander and politician, 1st President of Afghanistan (b. 1909).
  • 2002 – Alexander Lebed, Russian general and politician (b. 1950).
  • 2015 – Michael J. Ingelido, American general (b. 1916).

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