On This Day … 04 December

Events

  • 771 – Austrasian king Carloman I dies, leaving his brother Charlemagne king of the now complete Frankish Kingdom.
  • 1110 – The Kingdom of Jerusalem captures Sidon.
  • 1259 – Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agree to the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounces his claims to French-controlled territory on continental Europe (including Normandy) in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.
  • 1619 – Thirty-eight colonists arrive at Berkeley Hundred, Virginia. The group’s charter proclaims that the day “be yearly and perpetually kept holy as a day of thanksgiving to Almighty God.”
  • 1676 – The Danish army under the command of King Christian V engages the Swedish army commanded by the Swedish king Charles XI at the Battle of Lund, to this day it is counted as the bloodiest battle in Scandinavian history and a turning point in the Scanian War.
  • 1745 – Charles Edward Stuart’s army reaches Derby, its furthest point during the Second Jacobite Rising.
  • 1783 – At Fraunces Tavern in New York City, US General George Washington bids farewell to his officers (refer to the American War of Independence).
  • 1791 – The first edition of The Observer, the world’s first Sunday newspaper, is published.
  • 1861 – The 109 Electors of the several states of the Confederate States of America unanimously elect Jefferson Davis as President and Alexander H. Stephens as Vice President.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea: At Waynesboro, Georgia, forces under Union General Judson Kilpatrick prevent troops led by Confederate General Joseph Wheeler from interfering with Union General William T. Sherman’s campaign destroying a wide swath of the South on his march to the Atlantic Ocean from Atlanta.
  • 1872 – The crewless American brigantine Mary Celeste, drifting in the Atlantic, is discovered by the Canadian brig Dei Gratia.
    • The ship has been abandoned for nine days but is only slightly damaged.
    • Her master Benjamin Briggs and all nine others known to have been on board are never accounted for.
  • 1893 – First Matabele War: A patrol of 34 British South Africa Company soldiers is ambushed and annihilated by more than 3,000 Matabele warriors on the Shangani River in Matabeleland.
  • 1917 – After drafting the Declaration of Independence, the Finnish Senate headed by P.E. Svinhufvud submitted to the Parliament of Finland a proposal for the form of government of the Republic of Finland and issued a communication to Parliament declaring independence of Finland.
  • 1918 – US President Woodrow Wilson sails for the World War I peace talks in Versailles, becoming the first US president to travel to Europe while in office.
  • 1939 – World War II: HMS Nelson is struck by a mine (laid by U-31) off the Scottish coast and is laid up for repairs until August 1940.
  • 1942 – World War II: Carlson’s patrol during the Guadalcanal Campaign ends.
  • 1943 – World War II: In Yugoslavia, resistance leader Marshal Josip Broz Tito proclaims a provisional democratic Yugoslav government in-exile.
  • 1943 – World War II: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt closes down the Works Progress Administration, because of the high levels of wartime employment in the United States.
  • 1945 – By a vote of 65-7, the United States Senate approves United States participation in the United Nations.
    • The UN had been established on 24 October 1945.
  • 1967 – Vietnam War: US and South Vietnamese forces engage Viet Cong troops in the Mekong Delta.
  • 1971 – The Indian Navy attacks the Pakistan Navy and Karachi.
  • 1971 – The PNS Ghazi, a submarine belonging to the Pakistan Navy, sinks during the course of the Indo-Pakistani Naval War of 1971.
  • 1981 – South Africa grants independence to the Ciskei “homeland” (not recognised by any government outside South Africa).
  • 1983 – US Navy aircraft from USS John F. Kennedy and USS Independence attack Syrian Missile sites in Lebanon in response to an F-14 being fired on by an SA-7.
    • One A-6 Intruder and A-7 Corsair are shot down.
    • 1 American pilot was killed, one was rescued and one is captured.
  • 1984 – Sri Lankan Civil War: Sri Lankan Army soldiers kill 107-150 civilians in Mannar.
  • 1992 – Somali Civil War: President George H.W. Bush orders 28,000 US troops to Somalia in Northeast Africa.
  • Navy Day (India).

People (Births)

  • 1647 – Daniel Eberlin, German soldier and composer (d. 1715).
  • 1881 – Erwin von Witzleben, Polish-German field marshal (d. 1944).
  • 1892 – Francisco Franco, Spanish general and dictator, Prime Minister of Spain (d. 1975).
  • 1892 – Liu Bocheng, Chinese commander and politician (d. 1986).
  • 1912 – Pappy Boyington, American colonel and pilot, Medal of Honour recipient (d. 1988).
  • 1932 – Roh Tae-woo, South Korean general and politician, 6th President of South Korea (d. 2021).
  • 1949 – Jock Stirrup, Baron Stirrup, English air marshal and politician.
  • 1960 – Glynis Nunn, Australian heptathlete and hurler.
  • 1962 – Nixon Kiprotich, Kenyan runner.
  • 1977 – Darvis Patton, American sprinter.
  • 1981 – Brian Vandborg, Danish cyclist.

People (Deaths)

  • 1845 – Gregor MacGregor, Scottish soldier and explorer (b. 1786).
  • 1850 – William Sturgeon, English physicist, invented the electric motor (b. 1783).
  • 2005 – Errol Brathwaite, New Zealand soldier and author (b. 1924).
  • 2006 – Ross A. McGinnis, American soldier, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1987).
  • 2012 – Jack Brooks, American colonel, lawyer, and politician (b. 1922).
  • 2016 – Patricia Robins, British writer and WAAF officer (b. 1921).
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