- 1420 – Battle of Vítkov Hill, decisive victory of Czech Hussite forces commanded by Jan Žižka against Crusade army led by Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor.
- 1769 – An expedition led by Gaspar de Portolá leaves its base in California and sets out to find the Port of Monterey (now Monterey, California).
- 1789 – Storming of the Bastille in Paris. This event escalates the widespread discontent into the French Revolution. Bastille Day is still celebrated annually in France.
- 1790 – Inaugural Fête de la Fédération is held to celebrate the unity of the French people and the national reconciliation.
- Bastille Day.
- 1791 – Beginning of Priestley Riots (to 17 July) in Birmingham targeting Joseph Priestley as a supporter of the French Revolution.
- 1798 – The Sedition Act of 1798 becomes law in the United States making it a federal crime to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the United States government.
- 1900 – Armies of the Eight-Nation Alliance capture Tientsin during the Boxer Rebellion.
- 1915 – World War I: Beginning of the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence between Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca and the British official Henry McMahon concerning the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire.
- 1916 – World War I: Battle of Delville Wood begins as an action within the Battle of the Somme, lasting until 3 September 1916.
- 1950 – Korean War: beginning of the Battle of Taejon.
- 1958 – In the 14 July Revolution in Iraq, the monarchy is overthrown by popular forces led by Abd al-Karim Qasim, who becomes the nation’s new leader.
- 1608 – George Goring, Lord Goring, English general (d. 1657).
- 1675 – Claude Alexandre de Bonneval, French general (d. 1747).
- 1755 – Michel de Beaupuy, French general (d. 1796).
- 1889 – Ante Pavelic, Croatian fascist dictator during World War II (d. 1959).
- 1896 – Buenaventura Durruti, Spanish soldier and anarchist (d. 1936).
- 1913 – Gerald Ford, American commander, lawyer, and politician, 38th President of the United States (d. 2006).
- 1922 – Robin Olds, American general and pilot (d. 2007).
- 1922 – Elfriede Rinkel, German SS officer (d. 2018).
- 1930 – Benoît Sinzogan, Beninese military officer and politician.
- 1936 – Robert F. Overmyer, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (d. 1996).
- 1947 – Claudia J. Kennedy, American general.
- 1988 – Jérémy Stravius, French swimmer; winner of five gold medals in Olympic and world championship competitions.
- 809 – Otomo no Otomaro, Japanese general and Shogun (b. 731).
- 1262 – Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester, English soldier (b. 1222).
- 1774 – James O’Hara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley, Irish field marshal (b. 1682).
- 1790 – Ernst Gideon von Laudon, Austrian field marshal (b. 1717).
- 1816 – Francisco de Miranda, Venezuelan general (b. 1750).
- 1876 – John Buckley, English soldier, Victoria Cross recipient (b. 1813).
- 1917 – Octave Lapize, French cyclist (b. 1887).
- 1918 – Quentin Roosevelt, American lieutenant and pilot (b. 1897).
- 1965 – Adlai Stevenson II, American soldier and politician, 5th United States Ambassador to the United Nations (b. 1900).
- 1974 – Carl Spaatz, American World War II general; commander of the Strategic Air Forces in Europe (b. 1891).