On This Day … 12 July

Events

  • AD 70 – The armies of Titus attack the walls of Jerusalem after a six-month siege. Three days later they breach the walls, which enables the army to destroy the Second Temple.
  • 927 – King Constantine II of Scotland, King Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Ealdred of Bamburgh and King Owain of the Cumbrians accepted the overlordship of King Æthelstan of England, leading to seven years of peace in the north.
  • 1191 – Third Crusade: Saladin’s garrison surrenders to Philip Augustus, ending the two-year siege of Acre.
  • 1470 – The Ottomans capture Euboea.
  • 1493 – Hartmann Schedel’s Nuremberg Chronicle, one of the best-documented early printed books, is published.
  • 1576 – Mughal Empire annexes Bengal after defeating the Bengal Sultanate at the Battle of Rajmahal.
  • 1691 – Battle of Aughrim (Julian calendar): The decisive victory of William III of England’s forces in Ireland.
  • 1776 – Captain James Cook begins his third voyage.
  • 1789 – In response to the dismissal of the French finance minister Jacques Necker, the radical journalist Camille Desmoulins gives a speech which results in the storming of the Bastille two days later.
  • 1799 – Ranjit Singh conquers Lahore and becomes Maharaja of the Punjab (Sikh Empire).
  • 1801 – British ships inflict heavy damage on Spanish and French ships in the Second Battle of Algeciras.
  • 1806 – Napoleonic Wars: At the insistence of Napoleon, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg and thirteen minor principalities leave the Holy Roman Empire and form the Confederation of the Rhine.
  • 1812 – The American Army of the Northwest briefly occupies the Upper Canadian settlement at what is now at Windsor, Ontario.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: The Medal of Honour is authorised by the United States Congress.
  • 1913 – Serbian forces begin their siege of the Bulgarian city of Vidin; the siege is later called off when the war ends.
  • 1918 – The Imperial Japanese Navy battleship Kawachi blows up at Shunan, western Honshu, Japan, killing at least 621.
  • 1920 – The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty is signed, by which Soviet Russia recognises the independence of Lithuania.
  • 1943 – World War II: German and Soviet forces engage in one of the largest armoured engagements of all time.
  • 1975 – São Tomé and Príncipe declare independence from Portugal.
    • Independence Day.
  • 1979 – The island nation of Kiribati becomes independent from the United Kingdom.
    • Independence Day.
  • 1998 – The Ulster Volunteer Force attacked a house in Ballymoney, County Antrim, Northern Ireland with a petrol bomb, killing the Quinn brothers.
  • 2006 – The 2006 Lebanon War begins.
  • 2007 – US Army Apache helicopters engage in airstrikes against armed insurgents in Baghdad, Iraq, where civilians are killed; footage from the cockpit is later leaked to the Internet.
  • 2012 – Syrian Civil War: Government forces target the homes of rebels and activists in Tremseh and kill anywhere between 68 and 150 people.

People (Births)

  • 100 BC – Julius Caesar, Roman politician and general (d. 44 BC).
  • 1394 – Ashikaga Yoshinori, Japanese shōgun (d. 1441).
  • 1821 – D.H. Hill, American general and academic (d. 1889).
  • 1907 – Weary Dunlop, Australian colonel and surgeon (d. 1993).
  • 1916 – Lyudmila Pavlichenko, Ukrainian-Russian soldier and sniper (d. 1974).
  • 1917 – Luigi Gorrini, Italian soldier and pilot (d. 2014).
  • 1922 – Mark Hatfield, American soldier and politician, 29th Governor of Oregon (d. 2011).
  • 1932 – Otis Davis, American sprinter.
  • 1934 – Thomas Charlton, American competition rower and Olympic champion.
  • 1937 – Robert McFarlane, American colonel and diplomat, 13th United States National Security Advisor.
  • 1938 – Wieger Mensonides, Dutch swimmer.
  • 1948 – Richard Simmons, American fitness trainer and actor.
  • 1957 – Rick Husband, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2003).
  • 1967 – Bruny Surin, Canadian sprinter.
  • 1968 – Catherine Plewinski, French swimmer.
  • 1985 – Keven Lacombe, Canadian cyclist.

People (Deaths)

  • 1067 – John Komnenos, Byzantine general.
  • 1441 – Ashikaga Yoshinori, Japanese shōgun (b. 1394).
  • 1691 – Marquis de St Ruth, French general.
  • 1693 – John Ashby, English admiral (b. 1640).
  • 1749 – Charles de la Boische, Marquis de Beauharnois, French navy officer and politician, Governor General of New France (b. 1671).
  • 1804 – Alexander Hamilton, American general, economist, and politician, 1st United States Secretary of the Treasury (b. 1755).
  • 1855 – Pavel Nakhimov, Russian admiral (b. 1802).
  • 1870 – John A. Dahlgren, American admiral (b. 1809).
  • 1892 – Alexander Cartwright, American firefighter, invented baseball (b. 1820).
  • 1934 – Ole Evinrude, Norwegian-American inventor and businessman, invented the outboard motor (b. 1877).
  • 1935 – Alfred Dreyfus, French colonel (b. 1859) (Refer to Dreyfus Affair).
  • 1944 – Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., American general and politician, Governor of Puerto Rico (b. 1887).
  • 1945 – Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, German field marshal (b. 1895).
  • 2000 – Charles Merritt, Canadian colonel and politician, Victoria Cross recipient (b. 1908).
  • 2014 – Kenneth J. Gray, American soldier and politician (b. 1924).
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