On This Day … 27 April

Events

  • 33 BC – Lucius Marcius Philippus, step-brother to the future emperor Augustus, celebrates a triumph for his victories while serving as governor in one of the provinces of Hispania.
  • 395 – Emperor Arcadius marries Aelia Eudoxia, daughter of the Frankish general Flavius Bauto.
    • She becomes one of the more powerful Roman empresses of Late Antiquity.
  • 629 – Shahrbaraz is crowned as king of the Sasanian Empire.
  • 711 – Islamic conquest of Hispania: Moorish troops led by Tariq ibn Ziyad land at Gibraltar to begin their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus).
  • 1296 – First War of Scottish Independence: John Balliol’s Scottish army is defeated by an English army commanded by John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey at the Battle of Dunbar.
  • 1509 – Pope Julius II places the Italian state of Venice under interdict.
  • 1521 – Battle of Mactan: Explorer Ferdinand Magellan is killed by natives in the Philippines led by chief Lapulapu.
  • 1522 – Combined forces of Spain and the Papal States defeat a French and Venetian army at the Battle of Bicocca.
  • 1539 – Re-founding of the city of Bogotá, New Granada (now Colombia), by Nikolaus Federmann and Sebastián de Belalcázar.
  • 1565 – Cebu is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines.
  • 1578 – Duel of the Mignons claims the lives of two favourites of Henry III of France and two favourites of Henry I, Duke of Guise.
  • 1650 – The Battle of Carbisdale: A Royalist army from Orkney invades mainland Scotland but is defeated by a Covenanter army.
  • 1777 – American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Ridgefield: A British invasion force engages and defeats Continental Army regulars and militia irregulars at Ridgefield, Connecticut.
  • 1805 – First Barbary War: United States Marines and Berbers attack the Tripolitan city of Derna (The “shores of Tripoli” part of the Marines’ Hymn).
  • 1813 – War of 1812: American troops capture York, the capital of Upper Canada, in the Battle of York.
  • 1927 – Carabineros de Chile (Chilean national police force and gendarmerie) are created.
  • 1941 – World War II: German troops enter Athens.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Communist Party of Slovenia, the Slovene Christian Socialists, the left-wing Slovene Sokols (also known as “National Democrats”) and a group of progressive intellectuals establish the Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation.
  • 1945 – World War II: The last German formations withdraw from Finland to Norway.
    • The Lapland War and thus, World War II in Finland, comes to an end and the Raising the Flag on the Three-Country Cairn photograph is taken.
  • 1945 – World War II: Benito Mussolini is arrested by Italian partisans in Dongo, while attempting escape disguised as a German soldier.
  • 1953 – Operation Moolah offers $50,000 to any pilot who defected with a fully mission-capable Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 to South Korea.
    • The first pilot was to receive $100,000.
  • 1960 – Togo gains independence from French-administered UN trusteeship.
    • Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Togo from France in 1960.
  • 1961 – Sierra Leone is granted its independence from the United Kingdom, with Milton Margai as the first Prime Minister.
    • Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Sierra Leone from United Kingdom in 1961.
  • 1978 – The Saur Revolution begins in Afghanistan, ending the following morning with the murder of Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan and the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
  • 1981 – Xerox PARC introduces the computer mouse.
  • 1987 – The US Department of Justice bars Austrian President Kurt Waldheim (and his wife, Elisabeth, who had also been a Nazi) from entering the US, charging that he had aided in the deportations and executions of thousands of Jews and others as a German Army officer during World War II.
  • 1992 – The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, comprising Serbia and Montenegro, is proclaimed.
  • 2006 – Construction begins on the Freedom Tower (later renamed One World Trade Centre) in New York City.
  • 2007 – Israeli archaeologists discover the tomb of Herod the Great south of Jerusalem.
  • 2018 – The Panmunjom Declaration is signed between North and South Korea, officially declaring their intentions to end the Korean conflict.
  • Day of the Uprising Against the Occupying Forces (Slovenia).
  • National Veterans’ Day (Finland).

People (Births)

  • 85 BC – Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, Roman politician and general (d. 43 BC).
  • 1791 – Samuel Morse, American painter and inventor, co-invented the Morse code (d. 1872).
  • 1822 – Ulysses S. Grant, American general and politician, 18th President of the United States (d. 1885).
  • 1850 – Hans Hartwig von Beseler, German general and politician (d. 1921).
  • 1893 – Draža Mihailović, Serbian general (d. 1946).
  • 1896 – Wallace Carothers, American chemist and inventor of nylon (d. 1937).
  • 1911 – Chris Berger, Dutch sprinter and footballer (d. 1965).
  • 1913 – Luz Long, German long jumper and soldier (d. 1943).
  • 1916 – Robert Hugh McWilliams, Jr., American sergeant, lawyer, and judge (d. 2013).
  • 1920 – James Robert Mann, American colonel, lawyer, and politician (d. 2010).
  • 1927 – Joe Moakley, American soldier, lawyer, and politician (d. 2001).
  • 1945 – Jack Deverell, English general.
  • 1947 – G. K. Butterfield, African-American soldier, lawyer, and politician.
  • 1954 – Frank Bainimarama, Fijian commander and politician, 8th Prime Minister of Fiji.
  • 1955 – Gudrun Berend, German hurdler (d. 2011).
  • 1962 – Andrew Selous, English soldier and politician.
  • 1982 – François Parisien, Canadian cyclist.
  • 1985 – Meselech Melkamu, Ethiopian runner.
  • 1990 – Trude Raad, Norwegian deaf track and field athlete.

People (Deaths)

  • 1599 – Maeda Toshiie, Japanese general (b. 1538).
  • 1702 – Jean Bart, French admiral (b. 1651).
  • 1813 – Zebulon Pike, American general and explorer (b. 1779).
  • 1969 – René Barrientos, Bolivian soldier, pilot, and politician, 55th President of Bolivia (b. 1919).
  • 1970 – Arthur Shields, Irish rebel and actor (b. 1896).
  • 1998 – Browning Ross, American runner and soldier (b. 1924).
  • 2012 – Daniel E. Boatwright, American soldier and politician (b. 1930).
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