- 138 – Roman emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius as his son, effectively making him his successor.
- 628 – Khosrow II, the last great Shah of the Sasanian Empire (Iran), is overthrown by his son Kavadh II.
- 1336 – Four thousand defenders of Pilenai commit mass suicide rather than be taken captive by the Teutonic Knights.
- 1836 – Samuel Colt is granted a United States patent for his revolver firearm.
- 1843 – Lord George Paulet occupies the Kingdom of Hawaii in the name of Great Britain in the Paulet Affair (1843).
- 1875 – Guangxu Emperor of Qing dynasty China begins his reign, under Empress Dowager Cixi’s regency.
- 1916 – In the Battle of Verdun, a German unit captures Fort Douaumont, keystone of the French defences, without a fight.
- 1918 – German forces capture Tallinn to virtually complete the occupation of Estonia.
- 1921 – Georgian capital Tbilisi falls to the invading Russian forces after heavy fighting and the Russians declare the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.
- 1932 – Hitler, having been stateless for seven years, obtains German citizenship when he is appointed a Brunswick state official by Dietrich Klagges, a fellow Nazi. As a result, Hitler is able to run for Reichspräsident in the 1932 election.
- 1933 – Launch of the USS Ranger at Newport News, Virginia. It is the first purpose-built aircraft carrier to be commissioned by the US Navy.
- 1939 – As part of British air raid precautions, the first of 21⁄2 million Anderson shelters is constructed in a garden in Islington, north London.
- 1941 – The outlawed Communist Party of the Netherlands organises a general strike in German-occupied Amsterdam to protest against Nazi persecution of Dutch Jews.
- 1947 – The formal abolition of Prussia is proclaimed by the Allied Control Council, the Prussian government having already been abolished by the Preußenschlag of 1932.
- 1948 – In a coup d’état led by Klement Gottwald, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia takes control of government in Prague to end the Third Czechoslovak Republic.
- 1980 – The government of Suriname is overthrown by a military coup led by Dési Bouterse.
- 1986 – People Power Revolution: President of the Philippines Ferdinand Marcos flees the nation after 20 years of rule; Corazon Aquino becomes the Philippines’ first woman president.
- 1991 – Disbandment of the Warsaw Pact at a meeting of its members in Budapest.
- Memorial Day for the Victims of the Communist Dictatorships (Hungary).
- People Power Day (Philippines).
- Revolution Day in Suriname.
- Soviet Occupation Day (Georgia).
- 1752 – John Graves Simcoe, English-Canadian general and politician, 1st Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada (d. 1806).
- 1778 – José de San Martín, Argentinian general and politician, 1st President of Peru (d. 1850).
- 1865 – Andranik, Armenian general (d. 1927).
- 1888 – John Foster Dulles, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 52nd United States Secretary of State (d. 1959).
- 1928 – Larry Gelbart, American author and screenwriter; creator and producer of M*A*S*H TV series (d. 2009).
- 1938 – Herb Elliott, Australian 1500 metres runner; 1960 Olympic champion and world record holder.
- 1947 – Lee Evans, American sprinter and athletics coach; two gold medals and world 400m record at 1968 Olympics.
- 1951 – Don Quarrie, Jamaican sprinter and coach; four Olympic medals and two world records.
- 1601 – Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, English general and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (b. 1566).
- 1634 – Albrecht von Wallenstein, Austrian general and politician (b. 1583).
- 1710 – Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, French soldier and explorer (b. 1639).
- 1978 – Daniel James, Jr., American general and pilot (b. 1920).
- 2020 – Dmitry Yazov, last Marshal of the Soviet Union (b. 1924).