What are Encirclement Campaigns?

Introduction

Encirclement campaigns were the campaigns launched by forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government against forces of the Communist Party of China during the early stage of the Chinese Civil War.

Formulated by German advisors Hans von Seeckt and Alexander von Falkenhausen, the campaigns were launched between the late 1920s to the mid-1930s with the goal of isolating and destroying the developing Chinese Red Army. The Nationalist forces launched encirclement campaigns against Communist bases in several separate locations across China.

Encirclement Campaigns by Location

  • Encirclement campaign against the Eastern Fujian Soviet.
  • Encirclement campaign against the Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi Soviet.
  • Encirclement campaign against the Hunan-Hubei-Sichuan-Guizhou Soviet.
  • Encirclement campaign against the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet.
  • Encirclement campaign against the Hunan-Western Hubei Soviet.
  • Encirclement campaign against the Northeastern Jiangxi Soviet.
  • Encirclement campaign against the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi Soviet.
  • Encirclement campaign against the Zuojiang Soviet.
  • First encirclement campaigns:
    • First encirclement campaign against the Central Fujian Soviet.
    • First encirclement campaign against the Eastern Guizhou Soviet.
    • First encirclement campaign against the Hailufeng Soviet.
    • First encirclement campaign against the Honghu Soviet.
    • First encirclement campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet.
    • First encirclement campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Soviet.
    • First encirclement campaign against the Jiangxi Soviet.
    • First encirclement campaign against the Nantong-Haimen-Rugao-Taixing Soviet.
    • First encirclement campaign against the Qiongya Soviet.
    • First encirclement campaign against the Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet.
    • First encirclement campaign against the Sichuan-Shaanxi Soviet.
    • First encirclement campaign against the Southern Fujian Soviet.
    • First encirclement campaign against the Youjiang Soviet.
  • Second encirclement campaigns:
    • Second encirclement campaign against the Central Fujian Soviet.
    • Second encirclement campaign against the Eastern Guizhou Soviet.
    • Second encirclement campaign against the Hailufeng Soviet.
    • Second encirclement campaign against the Honghu Soviet.
    • Second encirclement campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet.
    • Second encirclement campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Soviet.
    • Second encirclement campaign against the Jiangxi Soviet.
    • Second encirclement campaign against the Nantong-Haimen-Rugao-Taixing Soviet.
    • Second encirclement campaign against the Qiongya Soviet.
    • Second encirclement campaign against the Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet.
    • Second encirclement campaign against the Sichuan-Shaanxi Soviet.
    • Second encirclement campaign against the Southern Fujian Soviet.
    • Second encirclement campaign against the Youjiang Soviet.
  • Third encirclement campaigns:
    • Third encirclement campaign against the Honghu Soviet.
    • Third encirclement campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet.
    • Third encirclement campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Soviet.
    • Third encirclement campaign against the Jiangxi Soviet.
    • Third encirclement campaign against the Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet.
    • Third encirclement campaign against the Sichuan-Shaanxi Soviet.
    • Third encirclement campaign against the Youjiang Soviet.
  • Fourth encirclement campaigns:
    • Fourth encirclement campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet.
    • Fourth encirclement campaign against the Honghu Soviet = 2nd stage of the encirclement campaign. against the Hunan-Western Hubei Soviet.
    • Fourth encirclement campaign against the Jiangxi Soviet.
  • Fifth encirclement campaigns:
    • Fifth encirclement campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet.
    • Fifth encirclement campaign against the Jiangxi Soviet.

Aftermath and Legacy

The first four Encirclement campaigns of the Chinese Nationalists military were unsuccessful.

However, with the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany in 1933, and the subsequent close cooperation between Nazi Germany and the Republic of China, the nationalists succeeded in the final 5th campaign which led directly to the famous Long March of the Communist Red Armies.

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