On This Day … 04 January

Events

  • 46 BC – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina.
  • 871 – Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfred are defeated by a Danish invasion army.
  • 1649 – English Civil War: The Rump Parliament votes to put Charles I on trial.
  • 1717 – The Netherlands, Great Britain, and France sign the Triple Alliance in an attempt to maintain the Treaty of Utrecht; Britain having signed a preliminary alliance with France on 28 November (17 November 1716).
  • 1762 – Great Britain declares war on Spain, thus entering the Seven Years’ War.
  • 1798 – Constantine Hangerli arrives in Bucharest, Wallachia, as its new Prince, invested by the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1854 – The McDonald Islands are discovered by Captain William McDonald aboard the Samarang.
  • 1878 – Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878): Sofia is liberated from Ottoman rule and designated the capital of Liberated Bulgaria.
  • 1885 – Sino-French War: French troops under General Oscar de Négrier defeat a numerically superior Qing force at Núi Bop in northern Vietnam.
  • 1912 – The Scout Association is incorporated throughout the British Empire by royal charter.
  • 1918 – The Finnish Declaration of Independence is recognized by Russia, Sweden, Germany and France.
  • 1944 – World War II: Operation Carpetbagger, involving the dropping of arms and supplies to resistance fighters in Europe, begins.
  • 1948 – Burma gains its independence from the United Kingdom becoming an independent republic, named the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nu its first Prime Minister.
    • Independence Day (Myanmar), celebrates the independence of Myanmar from the United Kingdom in 1948.
  • 1951 – Korean War: Chinese and North Korean forces capture Seoul.
  • 1976 – The Troubles: The Ulster Volunteer Force shoots dead six Irish Catholic civilians in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.
    • The next day, gunmen would shoot dead ten Protestant civilians nearby in retaliation.
  • 1989 – Second Gulf of Sidra incident: A pair of Libyan MiG-23 “Floggers” are shot down by a pair of US Navy F-14 Tomcats during an air-to-air confrontation.
  • 2004 – Mikheil Saakashvili is elected President of Georgia following the November 2003 Rose Revolution.
  • Colonial Martyrs Repression Day (Angola).

People (Births)

  • 1832 – George Tryon, English admiral (d. 1893).
  • 1848 – Katsura Tarō, Japanese general and politician, 6th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1913).
  • 1891 – Edward Brooker, English-Australian sergeant and politician, 31st Premier of Tasmania (d. 1948).
  • 1895 – Leroy Grumman, American engineer and businessman, co-founded Grumman Aeronautical Engineering Co. (d. 1982).
  • 1973 – Frank Høj, Danish cyclist.
  • 1974 – Danilo Hondo, German cyclist.
  • 1986 – Andrei Krauchanka, Belarusian decathlete.

People (Deaths)

  • 1424 – Muzio Sforza, Italian condottiero.
  • 1695 – François-Henri de Montmorency, duc de Luxembourg, French general (b. 1628).
  • 1782 – Ange-Jacques Gabriel, French architect, designed École Militaire (b. 1698).
  • 1863 – Roger Hanson, American general (b. 1827).
  • 1883 – Antoine Chanzy, French general (b. 1823).
  • 1912 – Clarence Dutton, American geologist and soldier (b. 1841).
  • 1943 – Jerzy Iwanow-Szajnowicz, Greek-Polish swimmer and water polo player (b. 1911).
  • 1943 – Marina Raskova, Russian pilot and navigator (b. 1912).
  • 1985 – Brian Horrocks, Indian-English general (b. 1895).
  • 1990 – Henry Bolte, Australian sergeant and politician, 38th Premier of Victoria (b. 1908).
  • 2013 – Anwar Shamim, Pakistani general (b. 1931).
  • 2019 – Harold Brown, 14th United States Secretary of Defence (b. 1927).
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