- 1142 – A peace treaty ends the Jin–Song wars.
- 1311 – The peerage and clergy restrict the authority of English kings with the Ordinances of 1311.
- 1531 – Huldrych Zwingli is killed in battle with the Roman Catholic cantons of Switzerland.
- 1614 – The New Netherland Company applies to the States General of the Netherlands for exclusive trading rights in what is now the northeastern United States.
- 1649 – Cromwell’s New Model Army Sacks Wexford, killing over 2,000 Irish Confederate troops and 1,500 civilians.
- 1767 – Surveying for the Mason–Dixon line separating Maryland from Pennsylvania is completed.
- 1776 – American Revolution: A fleet of American boats on Lake Champlain is defeated by the Royal Navy, but delays the British advance until 1777.
- 1797 – The Royal Navy decisively defeats the Batavian Navy at Camperdown during the French Revolutionary Wars.
- 1840 – The Maronite leader Bashir Shihab II surrenders to the Ottoman Empire and later is sent to Malta in exile.
- 1862 – American Civil War: Confederate troops conduct a raid on Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.
- 1899 – The Second Boer War erupts in South Africa between the British-ruled Cape Colony, and the Boer-ruled Transvaal and Orange Free State.
- 1906 – San Francisco sparks a diplomatic crisis between the United States and Japan by ordering segregated schools for Japanese students.
- 1912 – First Balkan War: The day after the Battle of Sarantaporo, Greek troops liberate the city of Kozani.
- 1937 – The Duke and Duchess of Windsor tour Nazi Germany for 12 days and meet Adolf Hitler on the 22nd.
- 1941 – Beginning of the National Liberation War of Macedonia.
- 1944 – The Tuvan People’s Republic is annexed by the Soviet Union.
- 1954 – In accord with the 1954 Geneva Conference, French troops complete their withdrawal from North Vietnam.
- 1972 – A race riot occurs on the United States Navy aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk off the coast of Vietnam.
- 1976 – George Washington is posthumously promoted to the grade of General of the Armies.
- 1986 – Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev meet in Iceland to continue discussions about scaling back IRBM arsenals in Europe.
- 1987 – Start of Operation Pawan by Indian forces in Sri Lanka. Thousands of civilians, insurgents, soldiers die.
- General Pulaski Memorial Day (United States).
- 1739 – Grigory Potemkin, Russian general and politician (d. 1791).
- 1803 – Gregor von Helmersen, Estonian-Russian general and geologist (d. 1885).
- 1897 – Nathan Farragut Twining, American general (d. 1982).
- 1901 – Masanobu Tsuji, Japanese colonel and politician (d. 1961).
- 1919 – Douglas Albert Munro, United States Coast Guard signalman, posthumously awarded Medal of Honour (d. 1942).
- 1922 – G. C. Edmondson, American soldier and author (d. 1995).
- 1927 – Jim Prior, Baron Prior, English soldier and politician, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland (d. 2016).
- 1928 – Roscoe Robinson, Jr., American general (d. 1993).
- 1930 – Sam Johnson, American colonel and politician.
- 1936 – C. Gordon Fullerton, American colonel, engineer, and astronaut (d. 2013).
- 1938 – Michael Stear, English air marshal (d. 2020).
- 1424 – Jan Žižka, Czech general and Hussite leader.
- 1779 – Casimir Pulaski, Polish-American general (b. 1745).
- 1809 – Meriwether Lewis, American captain, explorer, and politician, 2nd Governor of Louisiana Territory (b. 1774).
- 1971 – Chesty Puller, American general (b. 1898).
- 1996 – Joe Morris, English-Canadian lieutenant and trade union leader (b. 1913).
- 2007 – David Lee “Tex” Hill, South Korean-American general and pilot (b. 1915).
- 2008 – Marjorie Fletcher, English Director of the Women’s Royal Naval Service (b. 1932).
- 2013 – Erich Priebke, German captain (b. 1913).
- 2019 – Alexei Leonov, Soviet/Russian cosmonaut and first human to conduct a spacewalk (b. 1934).
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