On This Day … 10 October

Events

  • 680 – The Battle of Karbala is won by the Umayyads under Yazid I.
  • 732 – Charles Martel’s forces defeat an Umayyad army near Tours, France.
  • 1471 – Sten Sture the Elder, the Regent of Sweden, with the help of farmers and miners, repels an attack by King Christian I of Denmark.
  • 1575 – Roman Catholic forces under Henry I, Duke of Guise defeat the Protestants, capturing Philippe de Mornay among others.
  • 1580 – Over 600 Papal troops land in Ireland to support the Second Desmond Rebellion.
  • 1631 – Thirty Years’ War: An army of the Electorate of Saxony seizes Prague.
  • 1760 – In a treaty with the Dutch colonial authorities, the Ndyuka people of Suriname – descended from escaped slaves – gain territorial autonomy.
  • 1814 – War of 1812: The United States Revenue Marine attempts to defend the cutter Eagle from the Royal Navy.
  • 1845 – In Annapolis, Maryland, the Naval School (later the United States Naval Academy) opens with 50 students.
  • 1868 – The Ten Years’ War begins against Spanish rule in Cuba.
    • Independence Day, commemorates the proclamation of Cuba’s independence from Spain and the beginning of the Ten Years’ War in 1868.
  • 1911 – The day after a bomb explodes prematurely, the Wuchang Uprising begins against the Chinese monarchy.
    • Double Ten Day (The National Day of Republic of China), celebrates outbreak of the Wuchang Uprising in 1911 that led to founding of the Republic of China in 1912
  • 1913 – US President Wilson triggers the explosion of the Gamboa Dike, completing major construction on the Panama Canal.
  • 1918 – RMS Leinster is torpedoed and sunk by UB-123, killing 564, the worst-ever on the Irish Sea.
  • 1920 – The Carinthian plebiscite determines that the larger part of the Duchy of Carinthia should remain part of Austria.
  • 1935 – In Greece, a coup d’état ends the Second Hellenic Republic.
  • 1938 – Abiding by the Munich Agreement, Czechoslovakia completes its withdrawal from the Sudetenland.
  • 1945 – The Double Tenth Agreement is signed by the Communist Party and the Kuomintang about the future of China.
  • 1954 – The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Sultanate of Muscat, Neil Innes, sends a signal to the Sultanate’s forces, accompanied with oil explorers, to penetrate Fahud, marking the beginning of Jebel Akhdar War between the Imamate of Oman and the Sultanate of Muscat.
  • 1963 – France cedes control of the Bizerte naval base to Tunisia.
  • 1963 – The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty comes into effect.
  • 1967 – The Outer Space Treaty comes into force.
  • 1970 – Fiji becomes independent.
    • Fiji Day, celebrates the independence of Fiji from United Kingdom in 1970
  • 1985 – US Navy aircraft intercept an Egyptian airliner carrying the perpetrators of the Achille Lauro hijacking, and force it to land in Italy.
  • 1998 – A Lignes Aériennes Congolaises jetliner is shot down by rebels in Kindu, Democratic Republic of the Congo, killing 41 people.
  • 2009 – Armenia and Turkey sign the Zurich Protocols, intended to normalise relations. However, they are never ratified by either side.
  • 2010 – The Netherlands Antilles are dissolved as a country.
  • Army Day (Sri Lanka).

People (Births)

  • 1678 – John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, Scottish general and politician, Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland (d. 1743).
  • 1825 – Paul Kruger, South African soldier and politician, 5th President of the South African Republic (d. 1904).
  • 1828 – Samuel J. Randall, American captain, lawyer and politician, 33rd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (d. 1890).
  • 1837 – Robert Gould Shaw, American colonel (d. 1863).
  • 1895 – Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, German field marshal (d. 1945).
  • 1935 – Khalil al-Wazir, Palestinian commander, founded Fatah (d. 1988).
  • 1939 – Joe Pitts, American captain and politician.
  • 1951 – Epeli Ganilau, Fijian general and politician, 16th Minister for Fijian Affairs.
  • 1959 – Bill Rammell, English academic and politician, Minister of State for the Armed Forces.

People (Deaths)

  • AD 19 – Germanicus, Roman general (b. 15 BC).
  • 1759 – Granville Elliott, English general (b. 1713).
  • 1800 – Gabriel Prosser, American rebel leader (b. 1776).
  • 1913 – Katsura Tarō, Japanese general and politician, 6th Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1848).
  • 1949 – Chikuhei Nakajima, Japanese engineer, businessman, and politician, founded Nakajima Aircraft Company (b. 1884).
  • 1953 – Erima Harvey Northcroft, New Zealand general, lawyer, and judge (b. 1884).
  • 1966 – Louise Thuliez, French school teacher, resistance fighter during World War I and World War II and author (b. 1881).
  • 1970 – Édouard Daladier, French captain and politician, 105th Prime Minister of France (b. 1884).
  • 1998 – Clark Clifford, American captain, lawyer, and politician 9th United States Secretary of Defense (b. 1906).
  • 2012 – Sam Gibbons, American captain and politician (b. 1920).
  • 2012 – Basil L. Plumley, American sergeant (b. 1920).
  • 2012 – Kyaw Zaw, Burmese commander and politician (b. 1919).
  • 2013 – Scott Carpenter, American commander, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1925).
  • 2013 – Sohei Miyashita, Japanese politician, Japanese Minister of Defense (b. 1927).
  • 2015 – Sybil Stockdale, American activist, co-founded the National League of Families (A non-profit organisation that is concerned with the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue) (b. 1924).
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