On This Day … 28 April


  • 224 – The Battle of Hormozdgan is fought. Ardashir I defeats and kills Artabanus V effectively ending the Parthian Empire.
  • 357 – Emperor Constantius II enters Rome for the first time to celebrate his victory over Magnus Magnentius.
  • 1192 – Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I), King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title to the throne is confirmed by election. The killing is carried out by Hashshashin.
  • 1503 – The Battle of Cerignola is fought. It is noted as one of the first European battles in history won by small arms fire using gunpowder.
  • 1758 – The Marathas defeat the Afghans in the Battle of Attock and capture the city.
  • 1788 – Maryland becomes the seventh state to ratify the United States Constitution.
  • 1789 – Mutiny on the Bounty: Lieutenant William Bligh and 18 sailors are set adrift and the rebel crew returns to Tahiti briefly and then sets sail for Pitcairn Island.
  • 1792 – France invades the Austrian Netherlands (present day Belgium and Luxembourg), beginning the French Revolutionary Wars.
  • 1794 – Sardinians, headed by Giovanni Maria Angioy, start a revolution against Savoy domination, expelling Viceroy Balbiano and his officials from Cagliari, the capital and largest city of the island.
  • 1796 – The Armistice of Cherasco is signed by Napoleon Bonaparte and Vittorio Amedeo III, King of Sardinia, expanding French territory along the Mediterranean coast.
  • 1887 – A week after being arrested by the Prussian Secret Police, French police inspector Guillaume Schnaebelé is released on order of William I, German Emperor, defusing a possible war.
  • 1920 – Azerbaijan is added to the Soviet Union.
  • 1941 – The Ustaše massacre nearly 200 Serbs in the village of Gudovac, the first massacre of their genocidal campaign against Serbs of the Independent State of Croatia.
  • 1944 – World War II: Nine German E-boats attacked US and UK units during Exercise Tiger, the rehearsal for the Normandy landings, killing 946.
  • 1945 – Benito Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci are shot dead by Walter Audisio, a member of the Italian resistance movement.
  • 1952 – Dwight D. Eisenhower resigns as Supreme Allied Commander of NATO.
  • 1952 – The Treaty of San Francisco comes into effect, restoring Japanese sovereignty and ending its state of war with most of the Allies of World War II.
  • 1952 – The Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty (Treaty of Taipei) is signed in Taipei, Taiwan between Japan and the Republic of China to officially end the Second Sino-Japanese War.
  • 1965 – United States occupation of the Dominican Republic: American troops land in the Dominican Republic to “forestall establishment of a Communist dictatorship” and to evacuate US Army troops.
  • 1967 – Vietnam War: Boxer Muhammad Ali refuses his induction into the United States Army and is subsequently stripped of his championship and license.
  • 1969 – Charles de Gaulle resigns as President of France.
  • 1970 – Vietnam War: US President Richard Nixon formally authorises American combat troops to take part in the Cambodian campaign.
  • 1975 – General Cao Văn Viên, chief of the South Vietnamese military, departs for the US as the North Vietnamese Army closed in on victory.
  • 1978 – President of Afghanistan, Mohammed Daoud Khan, is overthrown and assassinated in a coup led by pro-communist rebels.
  • 1986 – The United States Navy aircraft carrier USS Enterprise becomes the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to transit the Suez Canal, navigating from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea to relieve the USS Coral Sea.
  • 2004 – CBS News released evidence of the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse. The photographs show rape and abuse from the American troops over Iraqi detainees.
  • Mujahideen Victory Day (Afghanistan).
  • Restoration of Sovereignty Day (Japan).

People (Births)

  • AD 32 – Otho, Roman emperor (d. 69 AD).
  • 1402 – Nezahualcoyotl, Acolhuan philosopher, warrior, poet and ruler (d. 1472).
  • 1758 – James Monroe, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 5th President of the United States (d. 1831).
  • 1827 – William Hall, Canadian soldier, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 1904).
  • 1888 – Walter Tull, English footballer and soldier (d. 1918).
  • 1897 – Ye Jianying, Chinese general and politician, Head of State of the People’s Republic of China (d. 1986).
  • 1900 – Heinrich Müller, German SS officer (d. 1945).
  • 1912 – Odette Hallowes, French soldier and spy (d. 1995).
  • 1921 – Rowland Evans, American soldier, journalist, and author (d. 2001).
  • 1923 – William Guarnere, American sergeant (d. 2014).
  • 1925 – John Leonard Thorn, English lieutenant, author, and academic.
  • 1926 – Hulusi Sayın, Turkish general (d. 1991).
  • 1937 – Saddam Hussein, Iraqi general and politician, 5th President of Iraq (d. 2006).

People (Deaths)

  • 948 – Hu Jinsi, Chinese general and prefect.
  • 1741 – Magnus Julius De la Gardie, Swedish general and politician (b. 1668).
  • 1813 – Mikhail Kutuzov, Russian field marshal (b. 1745).
  • 1905 – Fitzhugh Lee, American general and politician, 40th Governor of Virginia (b. 1835).
  • 1945 – Roberto Farinacci, Italian soldier and politician (b. 1892).
  • 1957 – Heinrich Bär, German colonel and pilot (b. 1913).
  • 1978 – Mohammed Daoud Khan, Afghan commander and politician, 1st President of Afghanistan (b. 1909).
  • 2002 – Alexander Lebed, Russian general and politician (b. 1950).

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