On This Day … 02 January


  • AD 69: The Roman legions in Germania Superior refuse to swear loyalty to Galba. They rebel and proclaim Vitellius as emperor.
  • 366: The Alemanni cross the frozen Rhine in large numbers, invading the Roman Empire.
  • 1492: Reconquista: The Emirate of Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, surrenders.
  • 1680: Trunajaya rebellion: Amangkurat II of Mataram and his bodyguards execute the rebel leader Trunajaya, a month after the rebel leader was captured by the Dutch East India Company.
  • 1777: American Revolutionary War: American forces under the command of George Washington repulsed a British attack at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek near Trenton, New Jersey.
  • 1791: Big Bottom massacre in the Ohio Country, North America, marking the beginning of the Northwest Indian War.
  • 1833: Captain James Onslow, in the Clio, arrives at Port Egmont to reassert British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.
  • 1865: Uruguayan War: The Siege of Paysandú ends as the Brazilians and Coloradans capture Paysandú, Uruguay.
  • 1900: American statesman and diplomat John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China.
  • 1905: Russo-Japanese War: The Russian garrison surrenders at Port Arthur, China.
  • 1920: The second Palmer Raid, ordered by the US Department of Justice, results in 6,000 suspected communists and anarchists being arrested and held without trial.
  • 1942: The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) obtains the conviction of 33 members of a German spy ring headed by Fritz Joubert Duquesne in the largest espionage case in United States history—the Duquesne Spy Ring.
  • 1942: World War II: Manila is captured by Japanese forces, enabling them to control the Philippines.
  • 1963: Vietnam War: The Viet Cong wins its first major victory, at the Battle of Ap Bac.
  • 1978: On the orders of the President of Pakistan, Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, paramilitary forces opened fire on peaceful protesting workers in Multan, Pakistan; it is known as 1978 massacre at Multan Colony Textile Mills.
  • 1993: Sri Lankan Civil War: The Sri Lanka Navy kill 35–100 civilians on the Jaffna Lagoon.

People (Births)

  • 1647: Nathaniel Bacon, English-American rebel leader (d. 1676).
  • 1727: James Wolfe, English general (d. 1759).
  • 1885: Gordon Flowerdew, Canadian lieutenant, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 1918).
  • 1896: Lawrence Wackett, Australian commander and engineer (d. 1982).
  • 1925: William J. Crowe, American admiral and diplomat, United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom (d. 2007).

People (Deaths)

  • 1169: Bertrand de Blanchefort, sixth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (b. c. 1109).
  • 1470: Heinrich Reuß von Plauen, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order.
  • 1951: William Campion, British colonel and politician, 21st Governor of Western Australia (b. 1870).
  • 1995: Siad Barre, Somalian general and politician; 3rd President of Somalia (b. 1919).
  • 2000: Elmo Zumwalt, American admiral (b. 1920).
  • 2001: William P. Rogers, American lieutenant, lawyer, and politician, 55th United States Secretary of State (b. 1913).

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