What was the Crimean War (1853-1856)?

Introduction The Crimean War was a military conflict fought from 16 October 1853 to 30 March 1856 in which Russia lost to an alliance made up of France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom and Sardinia. The immediate cause of the war involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, then a part… Read More


What was the Greek War of Independence (1821-1829)?

Introduction The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution of 1821 or Greek Revolution (Greek: Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi; referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as simply the Αγώνας, Agonas, “Struggle”; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, “Greek Mutiny”), was a successful war of independence by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman… Read More

What was the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)?

Introduction The Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 (24 April 1877 to 03 March 1878) (Turkish: 93 Harbi, lit. ’War of ’93′, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Bulgarian: Руско-турска Освободителна война, romanised: Rusko-turska Osvoboditelna vojna, “Russian-Turkish Liberation war”) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian… Read More

What was the Peace of Vasvar (1664)?

Introduction The Peace of Vasvár was a treaty between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire which followed the Battle of Saint Gotthard of 01 August 1664 (near Mogersdorf, Burgenland), and concluded the Austro-Turkish War (1663-1664). It held for about 20 years, until 1683, during which border skirmishing escalated to a full-scale war and culminated… Read More

What was the Battle of Saint Gotthard (1664)?

Introduction The Battle of Saint Gotthard (Hungarian: Szentgotthárdi csata; Turkish: Saint Gotthard Muharebesi; German: Schlacht bei Mogersdorf and Schlacht bei St. Gotthard; French: Bataille de Saint-Gothard; (Croatian: Monošterska bitka) was fought on 01 August 1664 as part of the Austro-Turkish War (1663-1664), between the Imperial Army led by Generalleutnant Raimondo Montecuccoli, Jean de Coligny-Saligny, Wolfgang… Read More

What was the Siege of Novi Zrin (1664)?

Introduction The Siege of Novi Zrin (New Zrin Castle); Croatian: Utvrda Novi Zrin; Hungarian: Új-Zrínyivár; Turkish: Zerinvar), between 05 June and 07 July 1664, was last of the military conflicts between the Croatian forces (with allies) led by Nikola Zrinski, Ban (viceroy) of Croatia, and the Ottoman army commanded by Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha, Grand… Read More

What was the Austro-Turkish War (1663-1664)?

Introduction The Austro-Turkish War (12 April 1663 to 10 August 1664), or fourth Austro-Turkish War, was a short war between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman aim was to resume the advance in central Europe, conquer Vienna and subdue Austria. The Ottomans managed to capture key strongholds, however, the Habsburg army under… Read More