What was the Siege of Smyrna (1402)?

Introduction The Siege of Smyrna (December 1402) was fought between the Knights of Rhodes, who held the harbour and sea-castle of Smyrna (now İzmir) in western Anatolia, and the army of the Turco-Mongol emir Timur. The Turco-Mongols blockaded the harbour and attacked the fortifications with stone-throwing siege engines, while the defenders, numbering only about 200… Read More

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What were the Smyrniote Crusades (1343-1351)?

Introduction The Smyrniote crusades (1343-1351) were two Crusades sent by Pope Clement VI against the Emirate of Aydin under Umur Beg which had as their principal target the coastal city of Smyrna in Asia Minor. Background The first Smyrniote crusade was the brainchild of Clement VI. The threat of Turkish piracy in the Aegean Sea… Read More

What was the Battle of Pallene (1344)?

Introduction The Battle of Pallene occurred in 1344 between the fleets of a Latin Christian league and Turkish raiders, at the Pallene Peninsula in northern Greece. Part of the Smyrniote Crusades, 1343-1351. The Battle The battle is known through the chronicle of the Paduan jurist Guglielmo Cortusi, and the history of the Byzantine emperor John… Read More

What was the Battle of Imbros (1347)?

Introduction The Battle of Imbros occurred in spring 1347 between the fleets of a Christian naval league formed as part of the Smyrniote crusades, and of a Turkish raiding fleet, possibly from the beyliks of Aydin and Sarukhan. The Turks abandoned their ships and landed on the island of Imbros, where most were captured. Opposing… Read More