Introduction Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement “of enemy citizens in wartime or of terrorism suspects”. Thus, while it can simply mean imprisonment, it tends to refer to preventive confinement rather than confinement after having been… Read More
An Overview of the Flight and Expulsion of Germans between 1944-1950
Introduction During later stages of World War II and post-war period from 1944 to 1950, Germans fled and were expelled to present-day Germany from Eastern Europe, which led to de-Germanisation there. The idea to expel the Germans from the annexed territories was proposed by Winston Churchill, in conjunction with the Polish and Czechoslovak exile governments… Read More
What was Operation Black Tulip (1945)?
Introduction Operation Black Tulip was a plan proposed in 1945, just after the end of World War II, by Dutch minister of Justice Hans Kolfschoten to forcibly deport all Germans from the Netherlands. The operation lasted from 1946 to 1948 and in total 3,691 Germans (15% of the German residents in the Netherlands) were deported.… Read More
An Overview of the Dutch Annexation of German Territory after WWII
Introduction At the end of World War II, plans were made in the Netherlands to annex German territory as compensation for the damages caused by the war. In October 1945, the Dutch state asked Germany for 25 billion guilders in reparations. In February 1945 it had already been established at the Yalta Conference that reparations… Read More
What were the Defence of Canada Regulations (1939)?
Introduction The Defence of Canada Regulations were a set of emergency measures implemented under the War Measures Act on 03 September 1939, a week before Canada’s entry into World War II. Background The extreme security measures permitted by the regulations included the waiving of habeas corpus and the right to trial, internment, bans on certain… Read More
What is an Enemy-Alien?
Introduction In customary international law, an enemy alien is any native, citizen, denizen or subject of any foreign nation or government with which a domestic nation or government is in conflict and who is liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured and removed. Usually, the countries are in a state of declared war. United Kingdom At… Read More
What was Defence Regulation 18B?
Introduction Defence Regulation 18B, often referred to as simply 18B, was one of the Defence Regulations used by the British Government before and during World War II. The complete name for the rule was Regulation 18B of the Defence (General) Regulations 1939. It allowed the internment without trial of people suspected of being actively opposed… Read More
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