What were the Defence of Canada Regulations (1939)?

Introduction The Defence of Canada Regulations were a set of emergency measures implemented under the War Measures Act on 03 September 1939, a week before Canada’s entry into World War II. Background The extreme security measures permitted by the regulations included the waiving of habeas corpus and the right to trial, internment, bans on certain… Read More

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What is an Enemy-Alien?

Introduction In customary international law, an enemy alien is any native, citizen, denizen or subject of any foreign nation or government with which a domestic nation or government is in conflict and who is liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured and removed. Usually, the countries are in a state of declared war. United Kingdom At… Read More

What was Defence Regulation 18B?

Introduction Defence Regulation 18B, often referred to as simply 18B, was one of the Defence Regulations used by the British Government before and during World War II. The complete name for the rule was Regulation 18B of the Defence (General) Regulations 1939. It allowed the internment without trial of people suspected of being actively opposed… Read More

What was Executive Order 9102?

Introduction Executive Order 9102 is a United States presidential executive order creating the War Relocation Authority (WRA), the US civilian agency responsible for the forced relocation and internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II. The executive order was signed by President Franklin Roosevelt on 18 March 1942, and it officially expired on 30 June 1946.… Read More

What was Executive Order 9066?

Introduction Executive Order 9066 was a United States presidential executive order signed and issued during World War II by United States president Franklin D. Roosevelt on 19 February 1942. This order authorised the secretary of war to prescribe certain areas as military zones, clearing the way for the incarceration of Japanese Americans, German Americans, and… Read More

What was the War Relocation Authority (US)?

Introduction The War Relocation Authority (WRA) was a United States government agency established to handle the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. It also operated the Fort Ontario Emergency Refugee Shelter in Oswego, New York, which was the only refugee camp set up in the United States for refugees from Europe. The agency… Read More