What was the Battle of Chrysopolis (324 AD)?

Introduction The Battle of Chrysopolis was fought on 18 September 324 at Chrysopolis (modern Üsküdar), near Chalcedon (modern Kadıköy), between the two Roman emperors Constantine I and Licinius. The battle was the final encounter between the two emperors. After his navy’s defeat in the Battle of the Hellespont, Licinius withdrew his forces from the city… Read More

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What was the Battle of the Hellespont (324 AD)?

Introduction The Battle of the Hellespont, consisting of two separate naval clashes, was fought in 324 between a Constantinian fleet, led by the eldest son of Constantine I, Crispus; and a larger fleet under Licinius’ admiral, Abantus (or Amandus). Despite being outnumbered, Crispus won a very complete victory. Part of the Civil Wars of the… Read More

What was the Battle of Adrianople (324 AD)?

Introduction The Battle of Adrianople was fought on 03 July 324, during a Roman civil war, the second to be waged between the two emperors Constantine I and Licinius. Licinius was soundly defeated, his army suffering heavy casualties as a result. Constantine built up military momentum, winning further battles on land and sea, eventually leading… Read More

What was the Battle of Mardia (316 AD)?

Introduction The Battle of Mardia, also known as Battle of Campus Mardiensis or Battle of Campus Ardiensis, was most likely fought at modern Harmanli (Bulgaria) in Thrace, in late 316/early 317 between the forces of Roman Emperors Constantine I and Licinius. Part of the Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy, 306-324 AD. Background Open civil war… Read More

What was the Battle of Cibalae (316 AD)?

Introduction The Battle of Cibalae was fought in 316 between the two Roman emperors Constantine I (r. 306-337) and Licinius (r. 308-324). The site of the battle near the town of Cibalae (now Vinkovci, Croatia) in the Roman province of Pannonia Secunda, was approximately 350 kilometres within the territory of Licinius. Constantine won a resounding… Read More

What was the Battle of Tzirallum (313 AD)?

Introduction The Battle of Tzirallum was part of the civil wars of the Tetrarchy fought on 30 April 313 between the Roman armies of emperors Licinius and Maximinus. The battle location was on the “Campus Serenus” at Tzirallum, identified as the modern-day town of Çorlu, in Tekirdağ Province, in the Turkish region of Eastern Thrace.… Read More

What was the Battle of Verona (312 AD)?

Introduction The Battle of Verona was fought in 312 between the forces of the Roman emperors Constantine I and Maxentius. Maxentius’ forces were defeated, and Ruricius Pompeianus, the most senior Maxentian commander, was killed in the fighting. Part of the Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy, 306-324 AD. Background In 312 Constantine saw his chance to… Read More