What was the Treaty of Ripon (1640)?

Introduction The Treaty of Ripon was an agreement signed by Charles I, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Scottish Covenanters on 28 October 1640, in the aftermath of the Second Bishops’ War. The Bishops’ Wars were fought by the Covenanters to oppose attempts by Charles to bring the Church of Scotland closer to… Read More


What was the Bishops’ Wars (1639-1640)?

Introduction The 1639 and 1640 Bishops’ Wars were the first of the conflicts known collectively as the 1638 to 1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which took place in Scotland, England and Ireland. Others include the Irish Confederate Wars, the First, Second and Third English Civil Wars, and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. Their origin… Read More