What was the Second Battle of Kosovo (1448)?

Introduction The Second Battle of Kosovo (Hungarian: második rigómezei csata, Turkish: İkinci Kosova Savaşı) (17-20 October 1448) was a land battle between a Hungarian-led Crusader army and the Ottoman Empire at Kosovo Polje. It was the culmination of a Hungarian offensive to avenge the defeat at Varna four years earlier. In the three-day battle the… Read More


What was the Battle of Varna (1444)?

Introduction The Battle of Varna took place on 10 November 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. The Ottoman Army under Sultan Murad II defeated the Hungarian-Polish and Wallachian armies commanded by Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary), John Hunyadi (acting as commander of the combined Christian forces) and Mircea II of Wallachia. It… Read More

What was the Crusade of Varna (1443-1444)?

Introduction The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European monarchs to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe, specifically the Balkans between 1443 and 1444. It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 01 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode… Read More

What was the Battle of Nish (1443)?

Introduction At the Battle of Niš (Battle of Nish) (early November, 1443), crusaders led by John Hunyadi captured the Ottoman stronghold of Nish (now Niš, Serbia) and defeated three armies of the Ottoman Empire. The Battle of Niš was part of Hunyadi’s expedition known as the long campaign. Hunyadi, at the head of the vanguard,… Read More

What was the Battle of Zlatitsa (1443)?

Introduction The Battle of Zlatitsa was fought on 12 December 1443 between the Ottoman Empire and Serbian Hungarian troops in the Balkans. The battle was fought at Zlatitsa Pass (Bulgarian: Златишки проход) (Turkish: Izladi Derbendi) near the town of Zlatitsa in the Balkan Mountains, Ottoman Empire (modern-day Bulgaria). The impatience of the king of Poland… Read More

What was the Battle of Kunovica (1444)?

Introduction The Battle of Kunovica or Battle at Kunovitsa was the battle between crusaders led by John Hunyadi and armies of the Ottoman Empire which took place on 02 or 05 January 1444 near mountain Kunovica (Suva Planina) between Pirot and Niš. The Battle The Christian contingent began their retreat on 24 December 1443, after… Read More