What was the Siege of Kraków (1657)?

Introduction The Siege of Kraków was one of the military conflicts of the Swedish and Transylvanian invasion of Poland, which took place in the summer of 1657. The royal city of Kraków, had been occupied for two years by a Swedish-Transylvanian garrison led by Paul Wirtz and János Bethlen. It was besieged by Polish Army… Read More


What was the Battle of Czarny Ostrow (1657)?

Introduction The Battle of Czarny Ostrów took place on 20 July 1657, during the period in Polish history known as the Deluge. The Polish Crown army commanded by Hetmans Stefan Czarniecki, Jerzy Lubomirski and Stanisław Potocki, supported by Crimean Tatars, defeated a Transilvanian-Cossack-Moldavian-Wallachian army under George II Rakoczi. Part of the Second Northern War, 1655-1660.… Read More