An Overview of the US Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT)

1.0 Introduction

This article provides an overview of the US Army’s Combat Fitness Test (ACFT), which replaced the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT).

The ACFT is underpinned by the Holistic Health and Fitness (H2F) system, the goal of which is to “build physical lethality and mental toughness to win quickly and return home healthy.” (FM 7-22, 2020, p.ix). Briefly, H2F is the Army’s soldier readiness system for physical and nonphysical training. The Army enables it with the five enduring elements of governance, programme, personnel, equipment and facilities, and leadership education. The H2F programme must meet the commander’s training goals to develop and maintain a high level of readiness appropriate to the unit’s mission-essential task list, individual soldier duty positions, and challenges of multi-domain operations. Read the updated FM 7-22 (and ATP 7-22.01 and 7-22.02) for a detailed outline of the H2F system, which is outwith the remit of this article (refer to Relevant Publications section at the end).

1.1 Why Change?

“Based on results of years of scientific study, the Secretary and Chief of Staff of the Army have directed replacement of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). While the legacy APFT is an acceptable test for measuring general fitness, it does not adequately assess the domains of combat physical fitness. The six-event Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT) was developed to better predict a Soldier’s readiness for the demands of the modern battlefield. Like combat, the ACFT is (was originally intended to be) both age and gender neutral. The desired end-states of ACFT implementation are an increase in physical readiness, a decrease in chronic injuries, and an evolution in the Army’s fitness culture.” (USACAC, 2018, p.iii).

The US Army required each service member to take a record, 3-event Army Physical Fitness Test (aka the APFT) 1 or 2 times per year (all components). However, performance evaluations only required raters to communicate a ‘pass’ or ‘fail.’ And, although soldiers/officers are required to be in compliance with all Army standards to be eligible for promotion; fitness is only one considered overall performance metric.

The APFT 3 events are graded on raw score performance and converted to 100-point scale scores based on age and gender. The Army last changed its physical fitness test, holistically, in 1980. This coincided with the termination of the Army Women’s Corps and the accession of women into the US Army. However, little or no physiological science was incorporated in validating the requirements and scoring in the development and implementation of the APFT.

The Army identified the need for a more predictive fitness assessment, to improve fitness and overall readiness, and synchronised to commonly occurring, critical high physical demand warrior tasks and battle drills (WTBDs).

With the above in mind, the purpose of the ACFT is to change the culture of fitness in the Army and increase overall readiness, becoming operational 40 years after the last holistic change. The 6 event test is intended to reflect the required combat fitness of soldiers – with the maintaining of this fitness level increasing overall readiness – and was scientifically validated through 4 years of extensive empirical research; although there have been challenges to the validity of some of the data the Army relied on, and that the test is an accurate predictor of combat tasks.

Originally designed to be both age- and gender-neutral, changes for 2023 take age and gender into account for scoring.

Refer to page 4-1 and 4-2 of FM 7-22.

2.0 What is the ACFT?

The ACFT (a six-event assessment), which will replace the APFT (a three-event assessment), is the means to validate personnel and units physical readiness training. Essentially, it will demonstrate how effective that training is in preparing personnel for the combat tasks they all have to be ready to perform.

Further, the intent of the ACFT is to accurately reflect the combat performance capability of personnel linked to WTBDs and common soldier tasks (CSTs).

The Army, backtracking, now says the test is a “general physical fitness assessment” not intended to predict success on the service’s Warrior Tasks and Battle Drills. That comes after RAND challenged the validity of data from the Army’s 2019 tests at Fort Riley, Kansas, that the service said proved the link. (Winkie, 2022).

2.1 Who has to Participate in the ACFT?

The ACFT applies to the Active Army, the Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States (ARNG) and the United States Army Reserve (USAR), unless otherwise stated.

The ACFT is undertaken by enlisted and commissioned personnel as:

  • Trainees during initial military training (IMT); and
  • Trained soldiers in the wider-Army.

Both temporary and permanent profile personnel undertake the ACFT (Mod) which is discussed below (Section 5.1).

  • Personnel with permanent profiles (i.e. medically downgraded) are expected to participate in the ACFT to their maximum ability (HQDA EXORD 219-18, FRAGO 6 – since superseded by HQDA EXORD 144-21). FRAGO 6 also tasked medical providers with modifying or revising current permanent profiles to include which events of the ACFT 6-event test (or ACFT (Mod)) that a soldier is able to participate in (given their physical limitations).
  • Personnel on a temporary profile may practice and train for the ACFT while on a temporary profile but cannot take a record ACFT. The Army suggests that personnel on a temporary profile should recover, rehabilitate, recondition and then complete a full ACFT.

2.2 ACFT and Initial Military Training

Recruit soldiers will be expected to complete the ACFT during their initial military training (IMT) (FM 7-22, 2020):

  • Basic Combat Training (BCT): No fixed date and practice for the ACFT is permitted (p.14-8).
  • Fitness Training Units (FTUs): When soldiers move from BCT to FTUs, they have four weeks to improve their ACFT scores to meet the Army standard, with most soldiers passing the ACFT in the first two weeks at the FTU (p.14-16).
  • Advanced Individual Training (AIT): Usually scheduled for week 14 (p.14-20).
  • One Station unit Training (OSUT): Usually scheduled for week 22 (p.14-20).
  • In both cases, the ACFT may be moved earlier in the cycle especially if a cumulative FTX is proposed for the penultimate week of training.
  • A practice ACFT scheduled at the beginning of the two-week peak period precedes the record test.
  • For longer or shorter AIT courses, leaders can adjust the pattern of train-peak-test around other programme of instruction requirements.

In May 2021, it was noted that while the ACFT was a training requirement in IMT, it was not a graduation requirement (CECOM IG, 2021).

“Preparation for the ACFT is built into the schedules for IMT. Frequent, repeated practice of the ACFT or its separate events is not likely to improve pass rates or readiness. This schedule has event-specific practice once per week in the weeks leading up to the record ACFT. Soldiers must train into physical readiness. They cannot test into physical readiness. The ACFT validates the physical training program. It is not the physical training program.” (FM 7-22, 2020, p.14-20).

2.3 ACFT Phases of Implementation

  • Phase 1:
    • Known as Initial Operating Capability (IOC).
    • Financial Year (FY) 19.
    • Began on 01 October 2018 to include “a limited Field Test with approximately 60 battalion-sized units from across all components of the Army.” (HQDA, 2018, p.1). 63 battalions.
    • Data and lessons learned from the field tests directed adjustments to the standards and administration procedures leading to Phase 2.
  • Phase 2:
    • Known as Full Operational Capability – Initial (FOC-Initial).
    • FY 20.
    • Began on 01 October 2019, being implemented Army-wide, with the legacy APFT continued for record test purposes.
    • COMPO 1 (Regular Army) units would conduct the ACFT twice; COMPO 2 and 3 units (Army National Guard/Army Reserve) would conduct the ACFT once.
    • During this time, the ACFT would also be incorporated into applicable regulations, publications, forms, records, and school courses.
  • Phase 3:
    • Known as Full Operational Capability (FOC).
    • FY 21.
    • Began on 01 October 2020, with the ACFT being adopted as the Army test of record.
    • Policy regarding physical profiles and alternative events developed during the field tests would be published no later than 01 October 2020.

The ACFT will not immediately impact personnel actions. It has phased implementation deadlines ranging from Oct. 1 of this year [2022] to April 1, 2024. (Winkie, 2022).

This Army-provided graphic explains the implementation timeline for the full ACFT, to include personnel actions.

3.0 Brief History

  • 1980:
    • APFT introduced.
  • 2018:
    • In July 2018, the Pentagon announced that the gender- and age-neutral ACFT would replace the APFT in October 2020.
    • Phase 1 of the ACFT implemented on 01 October 2018.
    • Over the course of the following two years, the Centre for Initial Military Training (CIMT) – the proponent of the new ACFT – would be adjusting standards accordingly.
  • 2019:
    • On 01 October 2019, The US Army’s Physical Fitness School (PFS) and CIMT began training and validating two categories of ACFT graders: (1) ACFT Grader and (2) ACFT NCOIC/OIC (HQDA, 2019).
    • Phase 2 of the ACFT implemented on 01 October 2019.
  • 2020:
    • On 12 June 2020, the Army stated that the Deputy Chief of Staff, G-3/5/7. in co-ordination with the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve Affairs (ASA (M&RA)) would publish further guidance on the ACFT, including (but not limited to) the interim events and scoring standards, profiles, frequency of testing, data collection, alternative aerobic events, and use for Initial Military Training (enlisted personnel) and Commissioning (officers).
    • On 12 June 2020, the Army also stated that a passing score on the last record APFT would remain valid until 31 March 2022 for any purpose requiring a passing APFT (or score) including (but not limited to) professional military education, functional courses or operational course credit consideration.
    • On 12 June 2020, the Army stated there would be no adverse administrative actions against soldiers failing the ACFT until further guidance was published by the ASA (M&RA).
    • From 01 October 2020, all ACFT Graders and NCOIC/OIC training and validation would be conducted by unit personnel (HQDA, 2019).
    • The ACFT became the physical fitness test of record on 01 October 2020.
    • Phase 3 of the ACFT implemented in 01 October 2020.
    • The Army stated it would no longer conduct the APFT after 30 September 2020, except as articulated in AR 350-1 (paragraph F-5k) for soldiers who failed their last record APFT (refer to AD 2020-06: Army Combat Fitness Test).
    • Soldiers would be required to input their scores into the Digital Training and Management System (DTMS), but the Army would not be holding scores against soldiers records.
  • 2021:
    • As of March 2021, the Army was still on track to fully implement the ACFT and count scores for the record by 01 April 2022.
    • On 01 April 2021, the Army introduced a new performance tier for the ACFT, and the plank, previously a temporary alternative to the leg tuck event, would become a permanent option. This new version of the test was dubbed ACFT 3.0.
    • HQDA EXORD 144-21, dated 22 March 2021, rescinded HQDA EXORD 219-18
    • All COMPOs had to conduct a minimum of one ACFT and enter the results in the DTMS prior to 31 August 2021 (as per HQDA EXORD 144-21).
  • 2022:
    • Record ACFTs expected to be used from 01 April 2022.
    • The leg tuck is no longer an event – the plank, with a newly lowered standard, is the only core event.
    • Record ACFT ranged in from 01 October 2022 to 01 April 2024.
  • 2023:
    • Changes are coming to the Army Combat Fitness Test, as the service looks to comply with a law mandating it create a gender-neutral assessment by June [2023], a continuation of the struggle over the test that was finally rolled out in October following years of delays.” (Lawrence, 2023).
    • The Army is weighing whether to use a gender-neutral version of the ACFT with a higher standard for combat arms soldiers, or repurpose physical tests currently required for expert badges (as at February 2023).
    • The changes are still being formulated, with some of the uncertainty driven by two competing congressional requirements built into last year’s (2022) annual defence policy bill to “establish gender-neutral fitness standards for combat [jobs] that are higher than those for non-combat [jobs],” while also creating gender-neutral standards for all soldiers.
    • The Army was also moving forward with a change to its body fat standards that would create waivers for soldiers who score highly on the ACFT (was expected to be finalised in March 2023). Soldiers who scored 540 or higher on the ACFT would be exempt from body fat testing (Winkie, 2023).

Brig. Gen. Scott Naumann, the Army’s director of training, emphasized that the Army “decided to implement the test as a general physical fitness assessment, as opposed to one that is designed to predict performance on a set of [combat] tasks,” in order “to address evidence shortfalls” with the University of Iowa study. (Winkie, 2022).

4.0 Outline of the ACFT?

The ACFT is a fitness test composed of 6 events performed in the following order (as per the ACFT IOC dated October 2019 and ATP 7-22.01 dated 26 October 2020):

3 Repetition Maximum Deadlift (MDL)1. The MDL is a muscular strength test that mimics movements required to safely and effectively lift heavy loads from the ground.
2. For example, the MDL is a strong predictor of a Soldier’s ability to lift and carry a casualty on a litter and to lift and move personnel and equipment.
3. This test event requires well-conditioned back and leg muscles that assist personnel in load carriage and in avoiding injuries to the upper and lower back.
Standing Power Throw (SPT)1. The SPT is a backward overhead throw for distance that measures explosive power.
2. Tasks that require powerful movements include jumping across a ditch, executing a buddy drag, throwing equipment over an obstacle, throwing a hand grenade, assisting a buddy to climb up a wall, loading equipment, and employing progressive levels of force in hand-to-hand contact.
Hand Release Push-Up (HRP)1. The HRP is a two-minute timed event that measures upper body muscular endurance and has high correlation with the repetitive and sustained pushing used in combat tasks.
2. It tests the ability to push an opponent away during hand-to-hand contact, push a vehicle when it is stuck, and push up from the ground during evade and manoeuvre.
It also engages upper back muscles used when reaching out from the prone position, taking cover, or low crawling.
3. When conducted to standard, the HRP provides a safe, equipment-free test of large muscle groups in the shoulders, trunk, hips, and legs.
Sprint-Drag-Carry (SDC)1. The SDC is a timed, 250-metre shuttle event that measures anaerobic capacity as well as muscular endurance and muscular strength.
2. These components of fitness are needed to accomplish high intensity tasks for relatively brief periods of time from a few seconds to a few minutes.
3. This physical capacity contributes to the ability to react rapidly to direct and indirect fire, build a hasty fighting position, and extract a casualty and carry them to safety.
Leg Tuck (LTK)
(No Longer an Event)
1. The LTK tests grip, shoulder, core, and hip flexor strength.
It is a muscular strength and endurance event with high occupational relevance.
2. LTK movements assist in all climbing tasks and in surmounting obstacles like climbing a vertical wall, climbing onto a shelf, climbing along a rope, or low crawling.
3. This test event requires well-conditioned abdominal and hip flexor muscles that assist in load carriage and in avoiding injuries to the upper and lower back.
The Plank1. The leg tuck is no longer an event – the plank, with a newly lowered standard, is the only core event.
2-Mile Run (2MR)1. The 2MR is a test of aerobic endurance.
2. It applies to common soldier tasks such as dismounted movement, ruck marching, and infiltration.
3. It can be completed on an indoor or outdoor track, or other approved course where this not possible.
4. Soldiers do not conduct this event on unimproved terrain.
5. The event commences no more than ten minutes after the completion of the Leg Tuck event.
6. The start and finish line will be at the same location as the other events.

As a minimum, personnel must score at least 60 points per event, for a total minimum of 360 points. Higher minimum event scores are required for certain jobs (known as MOS or military oocupational specialty) with higher physical demands:

  • 70 points per event: Minimum score for personnel in heavy physical demand unit/MOS (420 points).
  • 65 points per event: Minimum score for personnel in significant physical demand unit/MOS (390 points).
  • 60 points per event: Minimum score for personnel in moderate physical demand unit/MOS (360 points).

Incorporated into the ACFT is the Preparation Drills (PD, a dynamic warm-up) prior to the 6 events and the Recovery Drills (RD) post events.

From October 2020, the 6 events are to be completed in order on the same day during a test period not to exceed “120 minutes”, (ATP 7-22.02, 2020, p.2-7) including preparation drill and MFL preparation, up from “90 minutes” in October 2019 (ACFT IOC, 2019, p.6).

As well as the ‘regular’ ACFT there is a Modified ACFT, known as ACFT (Mod).

4.1 ACFT (Mod)

The Modified ACFT for permanently profiled, deployable personnel consists of a minimum of 3 events. Although it is possible for permanently profiled personnel to take 6 events with the only difference from a ‘regular’ ACFT being the different (non-impact aerobic endurance) event from the 2 mile run (2MR).

As per the ‘regular’ ACFT, the ACFT (Mod) incorporates preparation and recovery drills known as Preparation Drills (Modified) (PD MODs) and Recovery Drills (Modified) (RD MODs).

Permanent profile personnel must undertake the ACFT events they are not profiled against (i.e. cannot perform) and, at a minimum, must pass:

  • MDL, with a minimum raw score of 140 pounds, for a scaled score of 60 points.
  • SDC with a minimum time of 3:00 minutes, for a scaled score of 60 points.
  • The 2MR – or one of the below – with a minimum time of 25 minutes for each, for a pass or fail score of 60 points.

The modified non-impact aerobic endurance events assess the aerobic and muscular endurance of personnel with permanent medical profiles who cannot perform the 2MR. These events (originally) included:

  • 5,000 metre row (using a stationary rowing machine);
  • 15,000 (October 2019), 12,000 (from October 2020) metre bike (using a stationary cycle ergometer); or
  • 1,000 metre swim (using a swimming pool with a minimum depth of one metre).

In 2022, the 2.5 mile walk was added as an alternative aerobic event along with the row, bike, and swim.

4.2 Scoring

The new scoring tables for the permanent version of the ACFT are thus age- and gender-normed, much like the old Army Physical Fitness Test.

New Army Combat Fitness Test grading scales released by the Army ahead of the 01 April 2022, launch date for the official for-record test.

Detailed scoring for each event can be found here (correct as at 23 March 2022).

4.3 Will the ACFT Standards be Based on MOS?

Yes. The standards will be set at 3 levels:

  1. Gold: Moderate MOS physical demands.
  2. Grey: Significant MOS physical demands
  3. Black: Heavy MOS physical demands

In order to successfully graduate from Basic Combat Training (BCT), Advanced Individual Training (AIT), Basic Officer and Warrant Officer Basic Leadership courses, and One Station Unit training, you will need to achieve a standard of Gold.

4.4 Record ACFTs

Active duty and Active Guard Reserve troops will begin taking the test for-record on Oct. 1 [2022], and they will have 6 months to pass an ACFT before it is incorporated into promotion points and used as grounds for kicking soldiers out of the Army beginning April 1, 2023. If they fail during that period, soldiers will be flagged.

For the service’s part-time soldiers, the record testing period will begin on April 1, 2023, and troops will have a year to pass an ACFT, or else they will be flagged until separations come into play for them on April 1, 2024.

Those deadlines will come sooner for other parts of the Army, though — initial military training courses and other professional military education with graduation dates after Oct. 1 [2022] will require a soldier to pass the ACFT. (Winkie, 2022).

4.5 Statistics

One of the reasons why Congress ordered the review was to determine whether critically short career fields would be disproportionately impacted. Enlisted fields with the highest failure rates, regardless of gender, included animal care, several non-combat medical specialties, cooks, ammunition stock control and human resources.

Additionally, the report’s analysis of around 460,000 soldiers’ ACFT scores revealed that women were failing the new test at alarming rates.

A total of 48% of active duty enlisted women and 28% of active duty female officers could not pass the test. Nearly 60% of enlisted Reserve and Guard women failed the ACFT, as did 51% of female Reserve officers and 43% of female Guard officers.

[Dr. Chandra] Hardison {the study’s lead author} explained that “while the pass rate discrepancies alone do not mean the test is flawed, they are especially concerning when there is insufficient validity of evidence to support the test[’s link to combat tasks].” (Hardison et al., 2022; Winkie, 2022).

5.0 Organisations and Qualifications

The Centre for Initial Military Training (CIMT), part of the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), is the proponent/lead for H2F and, through its H2F Directorate, is responsible for doctrine and training development.

The H2F School is a future capability that will optimise existing competencies within the Army Physical Fitness School with emergent H2F capabilities to become the Army’s premier teaching facility for performance readiness. The H2F School will be staffed with Regular Army and Army civilian instructors who are qualified to train and certify unit-level H2F personnel in Army-specific requirements.

For professionally-credentialed personnel, H2F instructors will conduct resident courses as well as installation-based courses across the Army via mobile training teams. Sister schools in the One Army School System (OASS) will provide trained H2F personnel to National Guard and Reserve Soldiers.

At a minimum, graduates from the H2F School will receive the H2F additional skill identifier (ASI) and, as the H2F System matures and the skills needed for H2F trainers expand, non-commissioned officers (NCOs) will be selected for military occupations specialty (MOS) training at the H2F School.

There are two categories of ACFT Graders who, beginning on 01 October 2019, where trained and validated by the PFS and CIMT, with training and validation conducted by unit personnel from 01 October 2020 (HQDA, 2019). The first are ACFT Graders who help set up and grade the ACFT, and ACFT NCOIC/OICs who primary role is to act as the test administrator (but also to train and validate other ACFT Graders and NCOIC/OICs within their location).

It is interesting to note that (in October 2019 at least) for both ACFT Graders and NCOIC/OICs it was not a validation requirement to pass the ACFT in order to pass the course.

5.1 ACFT Graders

HQDA (2019) stated that ACFT Graders would require 8 hours of training and testing, which included undertaking the 6-event ACFT.

The purpose of ACFT Graders is to:

  • Validate the testing equipment;
  • Set up the ACFT testing lanes;
  • Grade the 6 ACFT events;
  • Grade the 3 alternative cardio events in the Modified ACFT for permanent profile soldiers;
  • Familiarise their unit with the ACFT;
  • Prepare soldiers to take the ACFT; and
  • Grade a record ACFT.

ACFT Graders could be trained and validated in one of three ways:

  • At PFS or CIMT resident courses;
  • By mobile training teams from PFS, CIMT or Master Fitness Trainer Centre (MFTC) satellite sites (Fort Benning, Fort Hood, Fort Dix, and Yakima Training Centre); or
  • By a unit ACFT NCOIC/OIC.


HQDA (2019) stated that NCOIC/OIC would require 20-24 hours of training and testing, which included undertaking the 6-event ACFT.

The purpose of ACFT NCOIC/OIC is to:

  • Serve as the NCOIC/OIC for a record ACFT;
  • Validate a testing location;
  • Validate the testing equipment;
  • Supervise the setup of ACFT testing lanes;
  • Supervise ACFT Graders;
  • Administer a record ACFT re-test;
  • Grade the 6 ACFT events;
  • Grade the 3 alternative cardio events in the Modified ACFT for permanent profile soldiers; and
  • Train and validate other ACFT NCOIC/OICs and ACFT Graders.

Master Fitness Trainers (MFT, i.e. soldiers with the P5/6P ASI) are encouraged to attend Day 1 of training to get extra instruction so they can better coordinate the ACFT training into their unit’s physical training.

ACFT NCOIC/OIC could be trained and validated in one of four ways:

  • At PFS or CIMT resident courses;
  • By mobile training teams from PFS, CIMT or MFTC satellite sites (Fort Benning, Fort Hood, Fort Dix, and Yakima Training Centre);
  • During a MFT certification course; or
  • By a unit ACFT NCOIC/OIC.

6.0 What is the Performance Tier?

On 01 April 2021, the Army introduced a new performance tier for the ACFT, and the plank, previously a temporary alternative to the leg tuck event, became a permanent option. This new version of the test was dubbed ACFT 3.0.

Under the new tier programme, soldiers’ scores – which can range from 360 to 600 – would be identified by ‘gender-informed performance categories,’ including platinum, gold, silver, bronze and green. Minimum passing standard of 60 points per event, equalling 360 points in total for the 6 events.

  • Platinum (top 1%; female/male).
  • Gold (top 2-10%; female/male).
  • Silver (top 11-25%; female/male).
  • Bronze (top 26-50%; female/male).
  • Green (personnel who pass the ACFT, but do not place in the top 50% of scores across the Total Army). Minimum passing standard of 60 points per event, equalling 360 points in total.

The change recognised ‘above average physical performance’ and physiological differences between men and women.

The Army decided it would review and adjust those standards annually based on the previous year’s ACFT scores, and new standards for the following year would be shared on 01 October. In other words, if an individual wants to remain in their tier they may have to work a little bit harder for the next year to stay in that tier.

7.0 Leg Tuck versus Plank Event

Under the second major update announced on 01 April 2021, soldiers could declare whether they would do a leg tuck or a two-minute plank to demonstrate their core strength as one of the ACFT’s six events.

  • Before this change, soldiers had to try a leg tuck first.
  • If they failed, they could opt to do the plank and only receive 60 points for passing the event.
  • With this update, the plank can replace the leg tuck for up to the full 100 points.
  • Research demonstrated the leg tuck was the ‘number one failed event’ out of the ACFT’s six events, for both male and female soldiers across all three Army components.
  • The change also considered soldiers who have been in the Army for 15 to 30 years and are now being asked to build that upper body strength for a leg tuck.

The leg tuck is no longer an event – the plank, with a newly lowered standard, is the only core event.

8.0 Further Information

8.1 Relevant Publications

  • Department of Defence (DOD):
    • DODD 1308.1: DOD Physical Fitness and Body Fat Programme (30 June 2004).
    • DODI 1308.3: DoD Physical Fitness and Body Fat Programme Procedures (05 November 2002).
  • Army Directives (AD):
    • AD 2020-06: Army Combat Fitness Test (12 June 2020).
  • Army Regulations (AR):
    • AR 40-501: Standards of Medical Fitness (27 June 2019).
    • AR 350-1: Army Training and Leader Development (10 December 2017).
    • Directs the Army’s mandatory training requirements.
    • AR 600-9: The Army Body Composition Programme (16 July 2019).
  • Army Technical Publications (ATP):
    • ATP 7-22.01: Holistic Health and Fitness Testing (01 October 2020).
    • Establishes the Army’s doctrine for the physical testing of Soldiers.
    • It presents a summary of tasks, conditions, and standards required to administer, grade, and score the Occupational Physical Assessment Test (OPAT), Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT), and Combat Water Survival Test (CWST).
    • ATP 7-22.02: Holistic Health and Fitness Drills and Exercises (01 October 2020).
  • Field Manuals (FM):
    • FM 7-22: Holistic Health and Fitness. (08 October 2020).
    • Establishes the Army’s doctrine for the readiness training of soldiers.
    • HQDA EXORD 219-18: Implementation of the Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT) w/FRAGOs 1-10) (13 July 2018).
      • HQDA EXORD 219-18 (FRAGO 8): Implementation of Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT).
    • HQDA EXORD 144-21: Army Physical Fitness Training (APFT) and Testing for FY 21-22 (CUI) (22 March 2021).
      • This EXORD rescinded HQDA EXORD 219-18 (all annexes A-K and FRAGOs 1-10) and reference h, HQDA EXORD 164-20 (with FRAGOS 1-2).
    • HQDA EXORD 164-20: ARmy Physical Fitness Test (APFT) and Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT) During the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak.
  • Centre For Army Lessons Learned, 20-09: Army Combat Fitness Test (Version Two) (18 February 2020).
  • Combined Arm Centre (CAC):
    • No. 18-37: The Army Combat Fitness Test (September 2018).
    • No. 20-09: Army Combat Fitness Test – Initial Operation Capability.
  • Army Combat Fitness Test: Initial Operation Capability, 01 October 2019 to 30 September 2020. (01 October 2019).
  • Field Testing Manual – Army Combat Fitness Test v1.4 (06 September 2018).
  • The US Army Holistic Health and Fitness Operating Concept (01 October 2020).
  • Forms:
    • DA Form 689: Individual Sick Slip.
    • DA Form 705: Army Combat Fitness Test Scorecard.
    • DA Form 2028: Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms.
    • DA Form 3349: Physical Profile.
    • DA Form 4856: Developmental Counselling Form.
    • DA Form 7888: Occupational Physical Assessment Test Scorecard.
    • DD Form 2977: Deliberate Risk Assessment Worksheet.
  • Research:
    • East, W. et al. Technical Report: T19.041-13.1: Baseline Soldier Physical Report Requirements Study. Research and Analysis Division, U.S. Army Center for Initial Military Training. November 2019.
    • DeGroot, D., et al. “Baseline Soldier Physical Readiness Requirements Study.” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 20, November 2017. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2017.09.076.
    • Palevych, S., Kirpenko, V., Piddubny, A., Bozhko, S., Tzymbaliyk, Z., Anthonny Martinez Velez, M., Anibal Martinez Velez, F., Armando Moreta Vinueza, J., & Antonio Martinez Leon, F. (2021) Structural Validity of the Physical Fitness Test Battery. Health, Sport, Rehabilitation. 7(4), pp.84-97.
    • Withrow, K.L., Rubin, D.A., Dawes, J.J., Orr, R.M., Lynn, S.K. & Lockie, R.G. (2023) Army Combat Fitness Test Relationships to Tactical Foot March Performance in Reserve Officers’ Training Corps Cadets. Biology. 12, 477.
    • Smith, M., Turner, D., Spencer, C., Gist, N., Ferreira, S., Quigley, K., et al. (2023) Body Shape and Performance on the US Army Combat Fitness Test: Insights from a 3D Body Image Scanner. PLoS ONE 18(5): e0283566.

8.2 Relevant Websites

9.0 References

AUSA (Association of the United States Army). (2021) Available from World Wide Web: [Accessed: 22 January, 2022].

CECOM IG. (2021) CECOM IG Update May 2021. Available from World Wide Web: [Accessed: 24 January, 2022].

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