The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, commonly known simply as The Citadel, is a public senior military college (SMC) in Charleston, South Carolina. Established in 1842, it is one of six SMCs in the United States. It has 18 academic departments divided into five schools offering 31 majors and 57 minors. The military programme is made up of cadets pursuing bachelor’s degrees who live on campus. The non-military programmes offer 12 undergraduate degrees, 26 graduate degrees, as well as evening and online programmes with seven online graduate degrees, three online undergraduate degrees, and three certificate programmes.
The South Carolina Corps of Cadets numbers 2,300 and is one of the largest uniformed bodies in the US. Approximately 1,350 non-cadet students are enrolled in Citadel Graduate College pursuing undergraduate and graduate degrees. Women comprise approximately 9% of the Corps and 22% of the overall enrolment while racial minorities comprise 15% of the Corps and 23% of the total enrolment. Approximately half of The Citadel’s cadet enrolment is from the state of South Carolina; cadets come from 45 states and 23 foreign countries. South Carolina residents receive a discount in tuition, as is common at state-sponsored schools. The Citadel receives 8% of its operating budget from the state. In 2019, the school’s Reserve Officer Training Programme (ROTC) programme commissioned 186 officers.
The Corps of Cadets combines academics, physical challenges, and military discipline. While only about one-third of graduates each year go into the armed services, all members of the Corps are required to participate in ROTC. The academic programme is divided into five schools – Business, Education, Engineering, Humanities and Social Sciences, and Science and Mathematics. Bachelor’s degrees are offered in 38 major programmes of study with 55 minors. The Citadel Graduate College offers 26 master’s degrees with 41 different concentrations, 25 graduate certificates and two educational specialist courses; a college transfer evening/online program also allows students with college credit to complete their bachelor’s degree in 12 subjects. 94% of the faculty hold doctoral degrees and the majority are full-time professors; the ratio of cadets to faculty is 12:1 and the average class size is 20.
While all programs make use of The Citadel’s campus and professors, only cadets live on campus. (Cadets are required to live on campus while they are in the Corps. There are no on-campus housing options for the other student populations). The veterans programme, reinstated in the fall of 2007, allows veterans to attend classes with cadets and complete their degrees. Enlisted members from the Marine Corps and Navy also attend cadet classes as part of a programme to commission highly qualified NCOs.
The Citadel Bulldogs compete at the NCAA Division I level in 16 sports within the Southern Conference.
The Citadel traces its origins to an arsenal constructed by the state of South Carolina to defend white Charlestonians against possible slave uprisings following Denmark Vesey’s thwarted rebellion of 1822. The school was founded by an act of the state legislature in 1842 as the South Carolina Military Academy it originally consisted of the Citadel Academy in Charleston and the Arsenal Academy in Columbia. The Arsenal was burned by General Sherman’s forces during the American Civil War and never reopened. The Citadel Academy was occupied by Union troops in 1865 and reopened as an educational institution in 1882. During the Civil War, the SCMA Corps of Cadets was organised into a military unit known as the Battalion of State Cadets which took part in nine engagements. In January 1861, Citadel Academy cadets manning a battery on Morris Island fired the first shots of the conflict when they shelled the Union steamship Star of the West which was attempting to resupply Fort Sumter. In December 1864, the cadet battalion made up more than a third of a Confederate force that defended a strategic rail line during the Battle of Tulifinny. The Citadel was awarded 9 battle streamers for service in the Civil War and is one of only 5 American colleges to receive a battle streamer for the participation of its student body in wartime service. The four other institutes are: VMI for the Battle of New Market, Florida State for the Battle of Natural Bridge, William and Mary for the Siege of Yorktown, and the University of Hawaii for the Hawaiian Islands Campaign.
In 1922, the school moved from its original location on Marion Square in downtown Charleston to a new campus on the banks of the Ashley River on the northwest side of the city. The Citadel has grown steadily from an enrolment of 460 to its present 3,500. During World War II, The Citadel had the highest percentage of any American college student body serving in the military and all but 346 of its living graduates were members of the armed forces. Alumni served as members of the Flying Tigers and Doolittle Raiders; 280 died in the service of their country. The first black cadet enrolled in 1966. The first woman admitted was Shannon Faulkner after a two-and-a-half-year court battle. She matriculated into The Citadel in 1995 with an otherwise all-male corps of cadets on 15 August 1995, but soon withdrew after she and her family received dozens of death threats and her parents’ home was vandalized. In 2018, The Citadel appointed the first female, Sarah Zorn, to lead the entire South Carolina Corps of Cadets as Regimental Commander. A graduate programme was started in 1968. A major capital improvement campaign started in 1989 saw the replacement or extensive renovation of a majority of the buildings on campus, academic offerings have been continuously expanded to offer in demand courses and degrees in fields such as Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science, Cybersecurity, Criminal Justice and Nursing. Citadel cadets and alumni have served in every United States military action from the Mexican War to the current Global War on Terrorism.
During the 2002-2003 academic year, The Citadel reorganised its existing departments into five schools, each headed by a dean. The schools comprise Business; Education; Engineering; Humanities and Social Sciences; and Science and Mathematics.
The Baker School of Business consists of three departments: Accounting and Finance; Management and Entrepreneurship; and Marketing, Supply Chain Management, and Economics. The school offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in Business Administration. Accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business since 1996, more cadets major in Business Administration than any other major. The MBA programme is also the largest of The Citadel’s graduate programmes. On 22 February 2017, The Citadel announced that Tommy Baker, who attended as a veteran student after serving in the Marine Corps, and his wife, Victoria, had made a gift to endow business programs, and that the school would be named in their honour. In January 2021, the school relocated from Bond Hall to Bastin Hall, a newly constructed academic building named for Rick and Mary Lee Bastin. Bastin Hall is the first new academic building added to the campus since 1974.
The Zucker Family School of Education houses undergraduate and graduate education programmes in several specialties. On 11 November 2014, The Citadel named its School of Education for the Zucker Family, after Anita Zucker made a $4 million donation to the school for its education programmes. The school is currently located in Capers Hall, but will relocate to Bond Hall upon the completion of Bastin Hall.
The School of Engineering consists of four departments: Civil and Environmental Engineering; Electrical and Computer Engineering; Engineering Leadership and Programme Management; and Mechanical Engineering. The school, which claims to be the fifth oldest such programme in the nation, has long offered undergraduate degrees in both Civil and Electrical Engineering. In 2014, the school added a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering programme and, in 2015, added 13 additional degree and certificate programmes, including master’s degrees in Civil, Electrical, and Mechanical Engineering. In 2018, the school added a Bachelor of Science in Construction Engineering programme. The school is located in Letellier Hall (Civil and Mechanical Engineering) and Grimsley Hall (Electrical Engineering). In 2016, US News & World Report ranked The Citadel’s School of Engineering 13th among all undergraduate engineering programmes without doctoral degrees in the United States making it the sixth straight year that the school has been in the Top 25.
Humanities and Social Sciences
The School of Humanities and Social Sciences consists of seven departments: Criminal Justice; English; History; Intelligence and Security Studies; Modern Languages, Literatures, and Cultures; Political Science; and Psychology. The school offers seven majors (with multiple concentrations) and 19 minors, and awards more than 50% of the credit hours earned at The Citadel. For graduate work, the school offers five degree programmes and three certificates, including cybersecurity and intelligence analysis. These programs resulted in the school being named a National Centre of Academic Excellence in Cyber Defence by the National Security Agency. The school is located in Capers Hall, which will soon be rebuilt and modernised.
David L. Preston, Westvaco Professor of National Security Studies in the History Department, in 2015 won the Guggenheim-Lehrman Prize in Military History and the 2016 Distinguished Book Award from the Society for Military History for his book, Braddock’s Defeat: The Battle of the Monongahela and the Road to Revolution.
Science and Mathematics
The Swain Family School of Science and Mathematics consists of seven departments: Biology; Chemistry; Cyber and Computer Sciences; Health and Human Performance; Mathematical Sciences; Physics; and the Swain Department of Nursing. The school, along with the Zucker Family School of Education and the School of Engineering, sponsor the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) Centre of Excellence, which hosts a variety of events throughout the year, including the annual Storm The Citadel week featuring a trebuchet competition. On 01 June 2018, The Citadel announced the naming of the school for the Swain Family, in recognition of major gifts provided by brothers David C. Swain, Jr., Class of 1980, and his wife, Mary, as well as Dr. Christopher C. Swain, Class of 1981, and his, wife Debora.
In addition to the Corps of Cadets residential day military programme, The Citadel offers several degree options to non-cadets, such as targeting active duty military, veterans, and civilians in both classroom and distance-learning online settings.
Corps of Cadets
The South Carolina Corps of Cadets is a residential, full-time programme in a military environment. Focusing on educating the “whole person,” membership in the Corps of Cadets is for students who want a military environment while pursuing a full-time undergraduate degrees.
The Citadel offers evening and online programmes under the banner of The Citadel Graduate College (CGC), serving the Lowcountry by offering regionally and professionally accredited bachelor’s, master’s and specialist degrees as well as certificate programs scheduled around the student’s profession, family and lifestyle. The CGC offers over 25 graduate programmes with over 15 concentration options, over 25 graduate certificate programmes, and 12 college transfer programmes. Some programmes are offered through the Lowcountry Graduate Centre consortium in North Charleston, South Carolina.
College Transfer Programmes
The Citadel Graduate College offers 12 majors within nine degree programmes to anyone, regardless of military status within its College Transfer programme. There are two different paths within the College Transfer Programme structure: 2+2 transfer programmes and degree completion programmes. The 2+2 programmes allow students to complete their first two years of study at an accredited college or university, then transfer those credits to The Citadel for the final two years to complete their degree through The Citadel’s evening on-campus programme. Six majors are offered in the 2+2 program: civil engineering (BSCE), computer engineering (BSCompE), construction engineering (BSConE), electrical engineering (BSEE), mechanical engineering (BSME), and nursing (BSN). The Degree Completion programmes allow students to begin once they have earned a minimum of 24 academic credit hours in general education courses. A combination of evening on-campus and online formats are available and six majors are offered in the Degree Completion program: business administration (BSBA), criminal justice (BA), intelligence and security studies (BA), political science (BA), social studies education (BS), and tactical strength and conditioning (BS).
Enlisted Commissioning Programmes
The Citadel is home to Enlisted Commissioning Programmes for the Navy and Marine Corps. The first Marine Enlisted Commissioning Education Programme (MECEP) in the nation was established at The Citadel in 1973. Navy enlisted members attend as part of the Seaman to Admiral (STA-21) Programme. Participants in these programmes attend day classes with cadets in their service uniform, including ROTC, but are not required to live on campus
All cadets are required to undergo at least two years of ROTC training in one of the four branches of the armed services that offer ROTC programmes (the Coast Guard does not have such a program), but they are not required to enter military service after graduation unless on ROTC scholarship or contract. Approximately 35% of Citadel Cadets are commissioned upon graduation.
US Coast Guard Auxiliary University Programme
In addition to their required ROTC course, cadets interested in pursuing a career with the United States Coast Guard can join The Citadel’s Coast Guard Auxiliary Unit Program (AUP). Originally established as The Citadel Coast Guard Society in 2007 and officially designated as Coast Guard Auxiliary Flotilla 12-8a Citadel Detachment in 2008, The Citadel’s Auxiliary Unit Program is one of the first Coast Guard Auxiliary University Programmes in the nation. The purpose of the unit is to orient and educate cadets on service options within the United States Coast Guard, to include Direct Commissions, Officer Candidate School (OCS), active duty and reserve enlistments, and continued service with the auxiliary.
Krause Centre for Leadership and Ethics
Established with a gift from L. William Krause ’63, the Krause Centre for Leadership and Ethics offers symposiums, classes and training seminars to help instil the principles of leadership, ethics, morals and service. A minor in leadership studies is also sponsored through this programme. Training is conducted each year for freshmen and sophomores on honour and ethics. Leadership classes are also given to cadets in the senior chain of command. The institute also sponsors programmes that offer cadets an opportunity to perform community service and instil a sense of commitment to one’s fellow man.
Cadet Officer Leadership School
Selected members of Air Force JROTC units from the Southeastern United States cadets are eligible to spend a week at The Citadel for officer training for their home JROTC units. A routine day attending Cadet Officer Leadership School (COLS) begins with waking up to Reveille for morning PT, the remainder of the day is uniform wear and inspection, two classes and constant regulation drill. On the day of graduation from the school, cadets participate in a “pass in review” ceremony where awards and decorations are given to certain cadets who have gone above the normal standards.
- In 2022, for the twelfth consecutive year, US News & World Report ranked The Citadel highest among Master’s Degree offering public institutions in the “Regional Universities – South” category and second out of all 136 universities (public and private) in the same category; the school was also ranked first in Best College for Veterans, sixth in Best Undergraduate Teaching, and tenth in Most Innovative Schools (all within the “Regional Universities – South” category). defined as those institutions offering “a full range of undergrad programs and some master’s programs”. US News & World Report also ranked the undergraduate engineering programme 16th nationally among schools offering up to a Masters Degree.
- Money magazine’s 2022 college ratings rank The Citadel 78th out of 744 US colleges for affordability, scholarship availability, average student debt, graduation rate, and average graduate earnings.
- In 2016 The Economist magazine ranked The Citadel 94th out of nearly 1,300 US colleges for average earnings of graduates.
- The Citadel in 2012 ranked 25th out of all U.S. public colleges in four-year graduation rate. As of 2015, the four-year graduation rate is 63% compared to a national average of 30%; the six-year rate is 72%.
Undergraduate students desiring to join the South Carolina Corps of Cadets must meet physical fitness and SAT/ACT testing standards for acceptance. On occasion, waivers to height/weight standards can be granted upon successful completion of the physical training test. On most days, cadets have both morning and afternoon physical (fitness) training, called “PT”, military instruction on leadership, weapons, drill, and discipline, in addition to their regular college classes. Most weekdays start with a formal muster and inspection of all personnel and their rooms. Cadets then march to structured military meals. After a day spent in classes, sports and other activities, the day usually ends with an evening muster formation and mandatory evening study period during which there is enforced quiet time and all cadets are required to be in the barracks, library or academic buildings. Cadets may not be married and must live on campus in the barracks with their assigned company for all four years. Cadets are restricted to campus during the week, but are allowed general leave on weekends and have limited but gradually escalating privileges for weekend and overnight passes. The Corps of Cadets employs a Fourth Class System in which first-year students have few rights on campus, must recite quotations and school facts to upperclassmen on command, and must obey any legal order from an upper-class cadet. The Citadel emphasizes a strict disciplinary and physical fitness indoctrination for fourth-class cadets, who are sometimes called “knobs” because of the shaved heads of the males, which they previously had to maintain until the spring when they were then recognised as fourth-class cadets. The haircut policy changed starting with the 2019-2020 academic year, where fourth-class male cadets only have to shave their heads during their initial week but can otherwise have hair as long as Department of Defence regulations allow it.
First-year cadets arrive on campus before the start of the academic year for Challenge Week, a period of intense training and physical trials that is informally referred to as “Hell Week.” According to The Citadel, the Fourth Class System “creates the discipline and instils the core values of Honour, Duty, and Respect which is expected of principled leaders in all walks of life. It is deliberately and appropriately stressful while always remaining positive, professional, and purposeful.” Numerous first-year cadets have been abused and seriously injured under the Fourth Class System, and some faculty and alumni have called for the college to adopt a modern disciplinary system in line with the US service academies.
Cadets who accumulate too many demerits or breach regulations can be punished by serving confinements or tours. A tour is one hour spent marching in the barracks with a rifle at shoulder arms and is normally performed when a cadet would otherwise be permitted to leave campus. A confinement is one hour spent in a cadet’s room when they would normally be permitted to leave campus.
First-class cadets, veteran students, and active duty military students receive their class rings at a special ring presentation ceremony which was previously held in the college’s chapel, but which now takes place in the school’s field house. Non-cadet students may also purchase a ring which has a different design and does not say “Military College of South Carolina.” The Citadel ring is 10 karat gold with no gem stone; the design does not change with each class with the exception of the class year.
One of the core values of The Citadel is an Honour Code that mandates that all students, both cadets and non-cadets, not lie, cheat, steal or tolerate those who do. A cadet-run Honour Court investigates all alleged violations and conducts trials for cadets. The penalty may result in expulsion, although recommendations for leniency may be forwarded to the President of the college for consideration. For non-cadets, a council of faculty and students enforces the code. While the codes are identical for cadets and non-cadets, they are administered separately and the range of sanctions for non-cadets varies from restitution to expulsion.
Included in The Citadel Graduate College are active duty Navy and Marine Corps enlisted personnel attending The Citadel under the Seaman To Admiral programme (STA-21) and the Marine Enlisted Commissioning Education Programme (MECEP), which originated at The Citadel in 1973.
The Regimental Band and Pipes
Established in 1909, the Regimental Band is one of the twenty-one companies that comprise the current Corps and is a prominent feature at every formal parade. Prospective members must pass an audition. None of the band’s members are music majors, as The Citadel does not offer such a major, yet the band and pipes enjoy an international reputation. The Band and Pipes made their inaugural appearance at the Edinburgh Military Tattoo in 1991 and were the only group from the United States to perform that year. Selected again by the Director of the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo in Scotland to represent the United States at the 2010 Silver Jubilee Tattoo, The Citadel Regimental Band and Pipes performed their own seven-minute segment of the Jubilee program in August 2010 as well as performing as part of the massed pipes and massed bands. Selected for a third time to represent the United States at the 2015 Tattoo, the Regimental Band performed the opening fanfare for the Tattoo’s theme “East meets West” as well as the massed bands finale. Combined with the Citadel pipe band, their own seven-minute segment of the show featured musical numbers reflecting a wide variety of uniquely American music. The Band and Pipes will return to perform again at the Tattoo in 2020, broadcast on the BBC it is viewed by more than 100 Million people in 30 countries across Europe and Scandinavia.
The Citadel Pipe Band, established by General Mark W. Clark in 1955, is one of the few college bagpipe bands in the country and it performs at the weekly parade at The Citadel, as well as at numerous other public events. The Citadel Regimental Band participated in the Presidential Inaugural parade in 1953, and again combined with the pipe band in the inaugural parades of 1961, 1985 and 2017.
In the summer of 2013, the Band and Pipes performed as the United States representative at the week-long Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo in Halifax, Canada.
The Summerall Guards is a silent drill team consisting of 61 cadets chosen each spring from the junior class. Founded in 1932, the team performs a routine called The Citadel Series that has changed very little from its inception and has never been written down. The Guards have performed at numerous high-profile events around the United States, including four presidential inaugurations, the National Cherry Blossom Festival, Mardi Gras in New Orleans, and at several NFL games.
An Honours Programme is available for cadets with exceptional academic standing and includes a core curriculum of honours courses conducted by the most highly rated faculty members, small seminars, and classes conducted in a discussion-type forum that encourages intellectual advancement. The programme accepts 25 cadets per year through a competitive process, and they are awarded scholarships. The programme also assists the most highly qualified cadets in applying for scholarships, grants, and merit-based internships; since 1992 The Citadel has produced 21 Fulbright Scholars and three Truman Scholars. A Fulbright Chair is set to be established in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences in the fall 2020 semester.
The Honours Program also administers external study programs, including those abroad and in Washington, D.C. Each year, cadets participate in study abroad programmes in numerous foreign countries, a semester-long internship programme in Washington, D.C. allows cadets an opportunity to work at various government agencies and in the offices of congressmen and senators. Summer internship programmes are available in many cities with major United States corporations.
The Citadel competes in NCAA Division I and has been a member of the Southern Conference since 1936; the school mascot is the Bulldog. Men’s intercollegiate sports are football, basketball, baseball, wrestling, cross country, indoor and outdoor track, rifle, tennis, and golf; women’s intercollegiate sports are volleyball, soccer, cross country, indoor and outdoor track, rifle, and golf. Numerous club sports include lacrosse, rugby, pistol, sailing, crew, ice hockey, and triathlon.
The Citadel Bulldogs baseball team has won 20 Southern Conference regular season and tournament championships, most recently in 2010; 43 players have been selected in the MLB draft The 1990 team won the Atlantic Regional, earning the school its first trip to the College World Series (CWS) and finishing the season ranked sixth in the final Collegiate Baseball poll with a record of 46-14; they also became the first military school to play in the CWS. Numerous alumni have played in the major leagues in recent years, recently retired Head Coach Fred Jordan ’79 is the school and conference’s winningest with 831 victories.
The football team has won four Southern Conference Championships and appeared in the Football Championship Subdivision playoffs five times; the 1960 team defeated Tennessee Tech 27-0 in the Tangerine Bowl. The 1992 squad went 11-2 and finished the regular season ranked #1 in the I-AA poll. The 2015 team recorded nine wins including a victory over South Carolina and four players were named to All-America teams. The 2016 squad had a 10-game win streak and won the outright Conference Championship. As of 2010 the football programme had a graduation success rate of 90% compared to the Division I average of 65%. Several alumni have played in the professional ranks including wide receiver and All-Pro return specialist Andre Roberts of the Los Angeles Chargers; cornerback Cortez Allen recently played five seasons with the Pittsburgh Steelers. Fullback Nehemiah Broughton played with the Washington Redskins, Arizona Cardinals and New York Giants; fullback Travis Jervey was an All-Pro and member of the 1996 Super Bowl Champion Green Bay Packers; kicker Greg Davis had a 12-year career with several teams including Arizona and the Atlanta Falcons. ESPN colour commentator Paul Maguire was a tight end and punter for three AFL champions with the Buffalo Bills and former St. Louis/Phoenix Cardinals running back Lyvonia “Stump” Mitchell has been a head coach at two Division I colleges and served as an NFL assistant for Seattle, Washington, Arizona and the New York Jets. Current NFL players also include cornerback Dee Delaney of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and wide receiver Raleigh Webb of the New England Patriots.
The wrestling team has sent 68 members to the NCAA Tournament and produced four All-Americans.
Completed in 2005, the Inouye Marksmanship Centre is utilised by cadets, law enforcement and the South Carolina National Guard. The Citadel Bulldogs rifle team has won four national championships (two team and two individual); Cadet Stephen Bowden was the 2013 National Individual Pistol Champion
For the 2018-2019 school year seven of the 13 sports team had a perfect Academic Progress Rate (APR) of 1,000; five of the remaining six were well above the multi year threshold score of 930.
The Citadel sits on a 300-acre (120 ha) tract of land on the Ashley River just to the northwest of downtown Charleston. There are 27 buildings, built in a Spanish Moorish style, grouped around a 10-acre (4.0 ha) grass parade ground. The buildings around the parade ground include ten classroom buildings, an administration building, five barracks, mess hall, a student activities building, chapel, library, a yacht club, a marksmanship centre, a field house, faculty/staff housing area, and various support facilities including a laundry, cadet store, tailor shop, and power plant. The campus is bounded to the west by the Ashley River, to the north by the Wagener Terrace neighbourhood, to the east by Hampton Park and the Hampton Park Terrace neighbourhood, and to the South by the Westside Neighbourhood.
Just off the main campus are Johnson Hagood Stadium, a baseball stadium, and an alumni centre. Additionally, the college owns a large beach house facility located near the north end of the Isle of Palms.
Padgett-Thomas Barracks, the first building constructed on campus and completely rebuilt in 2004, faces the centre of the parade ground and dominates the campus with its 109 feet (33 m) tower, distinguishing it from all other barracks and buildings on campus. Home to one of the five battalions of the South Carolina Corps of Cadets, the Regimental Band and Pipes, and Regimental Staff, the barracks has space to house up to 560 cadets.
The Summerall Chapel, designed by C.R. MacDonald, was started on 07 September 1936, and dedicated on Palm Sunday 10 April 1938. The first services, however, were held in the chapel on 19 September 1937. The chapel was named in honour of Citadel president General Charles Pelot Summerall. Inside, there is a set of 30 stained glass windows designed by H.G. Wilbert depicting the life of Jesus Christ which were executed by the Pittsburgh Stained Glass Studios in the 13th century Gothic style. A $1 million repair programme was developed for the chapel in 1985.
In June 2015, the school’s Board of Visitors voted in favour of moving a Confederate naval jack from the chapel to what was called “an appropriate location on campus.” As of September 2017, the flag had not yet been removed, nor had an “appropriate location” been selected.
Originally named “The Memorial Library and Museum” and opened in 1960, it was renamed in 1972, “The Daniel Library” in honour of Charles E. Daniel, ’18 and Robert Hugh Daniel, ’29, both lifelong benefactors of the college. Major renovations were completed in the fall of 2010. It houses over 200,000 volumes of material as well as electronic access to thousands of journals. The third floor of the building houses the campus archives and museum.
The Prioleau Room on the first floor houses special collections and is considered by many as one of the best places on campus to study with its dark wood panelling and fireplace. The Daniel Library website has information for locating items in the catalogue, the Lowcountry Digital Library, and The Citadel’s own Digital Collections.
Howie Bell Tower and Carillon
Standing next to Summerall Chapel and built in 1954, this structure honors one of the school’s most revered alumni, US Army Major Thomas D. Howie, Class of 1929, who served as Commander of 3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry Regiment, 29th Infantry Division in the Normandy Campaign during World War II and was immortalised as “The Major of St Lo”. Killed in action during the liberation of St. Lo, France, he was so respected that his flag draped body was carried on the hood of a Jeep at the head of the column of troops so he could be accorded the honour of being the first American to enter the city. A photo of his body placed in the rubble of the St. Croix Cathedral came to symbolize the courage and sacrifice of US forces in the European Theater. Containing 59 bronze bells cast at the Royal Bergen Foundry in the Netherlands, the tower carillon is one of the largest in the Western Hemisphere.
Located next to Mark Clark Hall at the northeast corner of Summerall Field, this uniquely shaped monument contains artifacts from the British submarine HMS Seraph, which carried then Major General Mark Clark to a secret landing in Algeria prior to the Allied landings in the North African Campaign of World War II in order to negotiate a surrender of the Vichy French forces; the vessel was also involved in Operation Mincemeat, a clandestine operation which succeeded in convincing the Germans that the allies intended to invade Sardinia, not Sicily. The memorial honours Anglo-American friendship and cooperation during World War II and is the only shore location in the United States authorised by the UK Ministry of Defence to fly the Royal Navy Ensign.
General Mark Clark Gravesite
Lying between Mark Clark Hall and Summerall Chapel is the burial plot of US Army General Mark Wayne Clark who served as Citadel President from 1954 to 1965 and President Emeritus until his death in 1984. The youngest Lieutenant General in the United States Army during World War II (age 46), Clark served as General Dwight Eisenhower’s deputy during the “Operation Torch” landings in North Africa, then commanded the 5th Army in the Italian campaign liberating Rome in June 1944. He later served as Commanding General of the 15th Army Group and in 1952 was appointed by President Truman as Supreme Commander of UN forces in Korea.
The Citadel Ring Statue
Located at the southeast corner of the parade ground near Lesesne Gate, the main entrance to campus, is a giant replica of The Citadel ring, recognised as the most important and treasured symbol of a graduate. It was a gift to The Citadel Alumni Association from Palmetto Balfour, the current supplier of the official Citadel class rings.
Monuments to the Armed Forces
On the parade ground are monuments dedicated to each of the military services and honouring the contributions of Citadel alumni to the military. They include a Marine landing craft (LVT-H-6); an Army Sherman Tank (M4A3) and an Army Missile (Corporal); an Air Force fighter jet (F-4C Phantom II); an AH-1 “Cobra” helicopter gunship and an anchor from the aircraft carrier USS Coral Sea. A United States Coast Guard Bell serves as a monument to Citadel graduates who have lost their lives upon the sea.
The Citadel has produced distinguished alumni in a variety of career fields. Well known graduates include former US Ambassador to Brazil Langhorne A. Motley, longtime US Senator Ernest “Fritz” Hollings, best-selling authors Pat Conroy and Robert Jordan, football commentator Paul Maguire, NFL player and coach Stump Mitchell, Space Shuttle astronaut and International Space Station Commander Colonel Randy Bresnik, Carolina Panthers wide receiver Andre Roberts and the Commander of US Central Command General Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr. Notable alumni include 6 governors, 3 US senators, 12 congressmen, the presidents of 47 colleges and universities, the Director of the US Olympic Committee and many professional athletes.
Approximately 35% of cadet graduates are commissioned as officers into the military, another 10% go directly to graduate programs; alumni currently serve in all five military services. Over the years, 299 Citadel alumni have reached the top ranks in the military by becoming flag officers (Generals, Admirals or Commodore), ten have served as a state Adjutant General. Nine alumni have served as pilots with the two US military flight demonstration units, the Thunderbirds and Blue Angels; graduates have served as commanders of both squadrons. Alumni also serve in the military services of foreign countries including six 4 Star Generals from Thailand and the head of Jordan’s Security Forces.
Citadel alumni were killed in action during the Mexican-American War (6), Civil War (67), World War I (15), World War II (280), Korean War (32), Vietnam War (68), Lebanon (1), Grenada (1), the Gulf War (1), and the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan (22).
In Popular Culture
- A thinly veiled depiction of The Citadel provides the background for Calder Willingham’s novel End as a Man (1947) and the film adaptation, The Strange One (1957).
- Pat Conroy’s 1980 novel The Lords of Discipline was based on Conroy’s experience as a cadet at The Citadel during the 1960s and on his research of other military schools. The novel outraged many of his fellow graduates of The Citadel, who felt that the book was a thinly veiled portrayal of campus life that was highly unflattering. The rift was not healed until 2000, when Conroy was awarded an honorary degree and asked to deliver the commencement address the following year. That year Conroy spearheaded fundraising to renovate the banquet hall in The Citadel Alumni Association building. The Lords of Discipline was made into a movie of the same name starring David Keith and Robert Prosky in 1983. Conroy also wrote about his experiences at the Citadel in his memoir My Losing Season (2002).
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