- 1411 – The First Peace of Thorn is signed in Thorn (Toruń), Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights (Prussia).
- 1662 – The Chinese general Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege.
- 1713 – The Kalabalik or Skirmish at Bender results from the Ottoman sultan’s order that his unwelcome guest, King Charles XII of Sweden, be seized.
- 1793 – French Revolutionary Wars: France declares war on the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.
- 1861 – American Civil War: Texas secedes from the US and joins the Confederacy a week later.
- 1864 – Second Schleswig War: Prussian forces crossed the border into Schleswig, starting the war.
- 1900 – Great Britain, defeated by Boers in key battles, has named Lord Roberts commander of British forces in South Africa.
- 1942 – World War II: Josef Terboven, Reichskommissar of German-occupied Norway, appoints Vidkun Quisling the Minister President of the National Government.
- 1942 – World War II: US Navy conducts Marshalls-Gilberts raids, the first offensive action by the United States against Japanese forces in the Pacific Theatre.
- 1942 – Voice of America, the official external radio and television service of the US government, begins broadcasting with programs aimed at areas controlled by the Axis powers.
- 1946 – Trygve Lie of Norway is picked to be the first United Nations Secretary-General.
- 1946 – The Parliament of Hungary abolishes the monarchy after nine centuries, and proclaims the Hungarian Republic.
- 1950 – The first prototype of the MiG-17 makes its maiden flight.
- 1968 – Vietnam War: The execution of Viet Cong officer Nguyễn Văn Lém by South Vietnamese National Police Chief Nguyễn Ngọc Loan is recorded on motion picture film, as well as in an iconic still photograph taken by Eddie Adams.
- 1968 – Canada’s three military services, the Royal Canadian Navy, the Canadian Army and the Royal Canadian Air Force, are unified into the Canadian Forces.
- 1998 – Rear Admiral Lillian E. Fishburne becomes the first female African American to be promoted to rear admiral.
- 2005 – King Gyanendra of Nepal carries out a coup d’état to capture the democracy, becoming Chairman of the Councils of ministers.
- 2021 – A coup d’état in Myanmar removes Aung San Suu Kyi from power and restores military rule.
- Air Force Day (Nicaragua).
- 1873 – John Barry, Irish soldier, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 1901).
- 1887 – Charles Nordhoff, English-American lieutenant, pilot, and author (d. 1947).
- 1890 – Nikolai Reek, Estonian general and politician, 11th Estonian Minister of War (d. 1942).
- 1901 – Frank Buckles, American soldier (d. 2011).
- 1902 – Therese Brandl, German concentration camp guard (d. 1947).
- 1910 – Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme, Chinese general and politician (d. 2009).
- 1921 – Patricia Robins, British writer and WAAF officer (d. 2016).
- 1923 – Ben Weider, Canadian businessman, co-founded the International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness (d. 2008).
- 1930 – Hussain Muhammad Ershad, Indian-Bangladeshi general and politician, 10th President of Bangladesh (d. 2019).
- 1945 – Mary Jane Reoch, American cyclist (d. 1993).
- 1947 – Adam Ingram, Scottish computer programmer and politician, Minister of State for the Armed Forces.
- 1952 – Owoye Andrew Azazi, Nigerian general (d. 2012).
- 1983 – Jurgen Van den Broeck, Belgian cyclist.
- 1768 – Sir Robert Rich, 4th Baronet, English field marshal and politician (b. 1685).
- 1936 – Georgios Kondylis, Greek general and politician, 128th Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1878).
- 1957 – Friedrich Paulus, German general (b. 1890).
- 1981 – Donald Wills Douglas, Sr., American engineer and businessman, founded the Douglas Aircraft Company (b. 1892).
- 2003 – Michael P. Anderson, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1959).
- 2003 – David M. Brown, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1956).
- 2003 – Laurel Clark, American captain, surgeon, and astronaut (b. 1961).
- 2003 – Rick Husband, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1957).
- 2003 – William C. McCool, American commander, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1961).
- 2003 – Ilan Ramon, Israeli colonel, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1954).
- 2014 – Vasily Petrov, Russian marshal (b. 1917).
- 2016 – Óscar Humberto Mejía Victores, Guatemalan general and politician, 27th President of Guatemala (b. 1930).
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