On This Day … 21 January [2023]

Events

  • 763 – Following the Battle of Bakhamra between Alids and Abbasids near Kufa, the Alid rebellion ends with the death of Ibrahim, brother of Isa ibn Musa.
  • 1720 – Sweden and Prussia sign the Treaty of Stockholm.
  • 1793 – After being found guilty of treason by the French National Convention, Louis XVI of France is executed by guillotine.
  • 1861 – American Civil War: Jefferson Davis resigns from the United States Senate.
  • 1893 – The Tati Concessions Land, formerly part of Matabeleland, is formally annexed to the Bechuanaland Protectorate, now Botswana.
  • 1919 – A revolutionary Irish parliament is founded and declares the independence of the Irish Republic.
    • One of the first engagements of the Irish War of Independence takes place.
  • 1925 – Albania declares itself a republic.
  • 1932 – Finland and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression treaty.
  • 1941 – World War II: Sparked by the murder of a German officer in Bucharest, Romania the day before, members of the Iron Guard engaged in a rebellion and pogrom killing 125 Jews.
  • 1943 – World War II: As part of Operation Animals, British SOE saboteurs destroy the railway bridge over the Asopos River, and guerrillas of the Greek People’s Liberation Army ambush and destroy a German convoy at the Battle of Sarantaporos.
  • 1954 – The first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus, is launched in Groton, Connecticut by Mamie Eisenhower, the First Lady of the United States.
  • 1968 – Vietnam War: Battle of Khe Sanh: One of the most publicised and controversial battles of the war begins
  • 1968 – A B-52 bomber crashes near Thule Air Base, contaminating the area after its nuclear payload ruptures.
    • One of the four bombs remains unaccounted for after the cleanup operation is complete.
  • 2000 – Ecuador: After the Ecuadorian Congress is seized by indigenous organisations, Colonels Lucio Gutiérrez, Carlos Solorzano and Antonio Vargas depose President Jamil Mahuad.
    • Gutierrez is later replaced by General Carlos Mendoza, who resigns and allows Vice-President Gustavo Noboa to succeed Mahuad.
  • 2009 – Israel withdraws from the Gaza Strip, officially ending a three-week war it had with Hamas.
    • However, intermittent fire by both sides continues in the weeks to follow.
  • 2014 – Rojava conflict: The Jazira Canton declares its autonomy from the Syrian Arab Republic.

People (Births)

  • 1598 – Matsudaira Tadamasa, Japanese samurai and daimyō (d. 1645).
  • 1717 – Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Spanish military officer and governor of Cuba (d. 1779).
  • 1721 – James Murray, Scottish-English general and politician, Governor of Minorca (d. 1794).
  • 1738 – Ethan Allen, American general (d. 1789).
  • 1788 – William Henry Smyth, Royal Navy officer, hydrographer, astronomer and numismatist.
  • 1810 – Pierre Louis Charles de Failly, French general (d. 1892).
  • 1813 – John C. Frémont, American general, explorer, and politician, 5th Territorial Governor of Arizona (d. 1890).
  • 1824 – Stonewall Jackson, American general (d. 1863).
  • 1848 – Henri Duparc, French soldier and composer (d. 1933).
  • 1867 – Maxime Weygand, Belgian-French general (d. 1965).
  • 1873 – Arturo Labriola, Italian revolutionary syndicalist (d. 1959).
  • 1881 – Ernst Fast, Swedish runner (d. 1959).
  • 1882 – Francis Gailey, Australian-American swimmer (d. 1972).
  • 1885 – Harold A. Wilson, English runner (d. 1932).
  • 1891 – Albert Battel, German Army lieutenant and lawyer (d. 1952).
  • 1891 – Francisco Lázaro, Portuguese marathon runner (d. 1912).
  • 1910 – Rosa Kellner, German athlete (d. 1984).
  • 1915 – Orazio Mariani, Italian sprinter (d. 1981).
  • 1918 – Richard Winters, American soldier (d. 2011).
  • 1919 – Eric Brown, Scottish-English captain and pilot (d. 2016).
  • 1928 – Reynaldo Bignone, Argentinian general and politician, 41st President of Argentina (d. 2018).
  • 1934 – Antonio Karmany, Spanish cyclist.
  • 1939 – Paul Genevay, French sprinter.
  • 1953 – Felipe Yáñez, Spanish cyclist.
  • 1961 – Piotr Ugrumov, Russian cyclist.
  • 1969 – Eduard Hämäläinen, Finnish-Belarusian decathlete.
  • 1973 – Rob Hayles, English cyclist.
  • 1974 – Arthémon Hatungimana, Burundian middle-distance runner.
  • 1974 – Marco Zanotti, Italian cyclist.
  • 1976 – Raivis Belohvoščiks, Latvian cyclist.
  • 1977 – Denis Lunghi, Italian cyclist.
  • 1977 – Ulrike Maisch, German runner.
  • 1978 – Faris Al-Sultan, German triathlete.
  • 1983 – Francesca Segat, Italian swimmer.
  • 1986 – Edson Barboza, Brazilian mixed martial artist.
  • 1987 – Shaun Keeling, South African rower.
  • 1987 – Augustine Kiprono Choge, Kenyan runner.
  • 1987 – Dominik Roels, German cyclist.
  • 1988 – Ashton Eaton, American decathlete.
  • 1988 – Pieter Timmers, Belgian swimmer.
  • 1989 – Sergey Fesikov, Russian swimmer.
  • 1989 – Matteo Pelucchi, Italian cyclist.
  • 1991 – Jan Hirt, Czech cyclist.
  • 1992 – Sven Erik Bystrøm, Norwegian cyclist.

People (Deaths)

  • 918 – Liu Zhijun, Chinese general.
  • 942 – An Chongrong, Chinese general (Five Dynasties).
  • 945 – Yang Tan, Chinese general and governor.
  • 1546 – Azai Sukemasa, Japanese daimyō (b. 1491).
  • 1775 – Yemelyan Pugachev, Russian rebel (b. 1742).
  • 1795 – Samuel Wallis, English navigator and explorer (b. 1728).
  • 1919 – Ahmed Muhtar Pasha, Ottoman general and politician, 277th Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1839).
  • 1928 – George Washington Goethals, American general and engineer (b. 1858).
  • 1945 – Rash Behari Bose, founder of the Indian National Army (b. 1886).
  • 1955 – Archie Hahn, German-American runner and coach (b. 1880).
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